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11,13,14,15

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Frustration
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When a desired need is blocked.
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Internal Frustration
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Personal dissatisfactions such as physical needs like being too short to join the NBA
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External Frustration
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Failures from the outside world like getting no call back from the job you applied.
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distress
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Unpleasant stressors(-)
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Eustress
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(+) Positive Stressors like having a baby
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Hassles
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Small stressors (disagreements)
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Displaced aggression
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Taking out frustration on someone who is a target
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Scapegoats
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Targets due to aggression
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Approach- approach conflict
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(++) choosing between 2 desirable goals (For someone who likes both movies and concerts, choosing between going to one or the other)
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Avoidance- avoidence conflict
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(–)choosing 2 or more UNPLEASANT events
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Approach Avoidance conflict
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Choosing 1 event can be (+) positive or (-) Negative
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social support system
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Network of family, friends, neighbors, coworkers, that offer support and comfort.(religious organization and regular attendance at religious functions)
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Burnout
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The negative changes in thoughts, emotions, and behavior as a result of prolonged stress or frustration
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Aggresion
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Action meant to harm or destroy
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Primary appraisal
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First step in evaluating a stressor that can be a threat or harmful to future events. (According to Lazarus, our first task when faced with a potential stressor is to estimate its severity and to determine whether it is a challenge or threat)
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Secondary appraisal
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Second step in assessing a stressor. Identifying threat or harmful situation and creating resources to cope with stressor like meetings, energy or support.
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sympathetic and parasympathetic
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Which part of the nervous system are associated with the general adaptation syndrome
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What happens During the alarm stage of the general adaptation syndrome
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The sympathetic nervous system is activated and adrenal glands release hormones
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Stressor
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Stress causing events (Hachi is working against a deadline. She must have a term paper written by 8 am tomorrow. The deadline is an example )
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concentrative meditation
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When a person focuses on the mind on some receptive or stimulus to clear disturbing thoughts to clear mind. ( researchers found lowers blood pressure in adolescents and adults.)
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Source traits
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What did Raymond Cattell call the underlying traits that direct surface traits
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Big Five personality traits
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openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism(OCEAN)
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Unconditional positive regard
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Example; Carl Rogers emphasized accepting people for what they are, not for what you would like them to be.
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Social cognitive
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there are three factors that influence personality: environment, person, and behavior. A social cognitive psychologist studies this.
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Personal and collective
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Jung believed that there were two levels to the unconscious mind
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Repression
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defense mechanism when a person decides to refuses to consciously remember a threatening or unpleasant event into unconscious mind. (such as not remembering lying to parents)
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fixated at that stage.
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Freud believe this could happen if our needs were delayed at a particular psychosexual stage.
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Inventories are standardized
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advantage of personality inventories over projective tests
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Projective
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assessment technique requires people to respond to unstructured or ambiguous stimuli
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Behavioral genetics
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the study of just how much of personality is due to inherited traits.
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best way to describe the positive symptoms of schizophrenia
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Excessive or distortion of normal functions
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biological perspective about schizophrenia
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Caused by genetics, chemical influence, brain structural influences
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Serotonin
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The neurotransmitter associated with bulimia nervosa
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Anxiety Disorders
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Excessive or unrealistic fearfulness and worry
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Social Phobia
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Fear of public speaking and stage fright
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AGORAPHOBIA
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Fear of being in a place or situation from which escape is difficult or impossible if something should go wrong
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Social norm defiance
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a way to define abnormality by comparing an individual’s behavior to the norms or standards of the society in which an individual lives
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Which neurotransmitters are most important in the development of mood disorders?
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Dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine
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Lithium
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medication for bipolar disorder (Bob has been under a physician’s care for bipolar disorder. Bob’s doctor is most likely to prescribe which of the following to treat Bob’s disorder?)
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how do antipsychotic drugs work?
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blocking dopamine receptors in the brain
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Elyn was recently treated with electroconvulsive therapy. She is mostly likely experiencing which psychological disorder?
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Depression
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Resistance
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change in the patient’s willingness to verbalize
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Action therapist
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helping a client change his disordered behavior
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one of the criticisms of cognitive and cognitive-behavioral therapies
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They treat the symptom not the cause
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Empathy
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The person-centered therapist has to be able to acknowledge and understand what the client is feeling and experiencing.
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real and ideal
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Sylvia, who is undergoing client-centered therapy has been told that she experiences a mismatch between her ________ self and her ________ self.
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flooding
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Iram is afraid of snakes. In an effort to help him overcome his fear, his therapist has him enter a room where there are dozens of snakes and has him hold them. Iram is not permitted to leave the room until the therapy session is completed. Iram’s therapist is using ________.
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Contingency Contract
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a method of reinforcement that uses a formal written agreement in which the goals for behavioral change, reinforcements, and penalties are clearly stated.
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Sociocultural perspective
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abnormal behavior is seen as learning and growing within culture
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Subjective discomfort
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Emotional distress while in behavior (fear or going outside her house experience anxiety when leaving. )
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culture- bound syndrome
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disorders found in certain cultures
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Psychological disorder
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behavior pattern that culture cause distress
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psychopathology
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study of abnormal behavior
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Psychological defense mechanism
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How to deal with stress and anxiety a defense mechanism
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Reality principle
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Developing id; it “feels good so just do it” with no negative consequences
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Temperament
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characteristics each person is BORN with
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character
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persons moral or ethical behavior
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Personality
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UNIQUE way in which each person thinks,act, and feels in life.
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Latency Stage
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Hidden or latent feelings of opposite sex ( Ex. when boys think girls have cooties 6+)
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Gentile Stage
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Puberty begins 13+
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Collective unconscious
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Memories shared of human species
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Aider
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Theory believed in “superiority” having an EXTERNAL mechanism to deal with themselves ( joining a hockey team because to let of stem since person is aggressive)
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Horney theory
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Believed in men lacking child bearing ability “womb envy” to rely on success
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Neurotic Personalities
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Ways to cope with anxiety used in relationships, being angry with couple, being distant, being dependent
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Basic Anxiety
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dealing with child being born into bigger world with older people, being defenseless
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trait
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way of thinking, behaving, feeling ( being funny is a way of behaving therefore its a trait.)
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Surface traits
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Seen by people outward action
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Introversion
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to withdrawal
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Collectivism/ Individualism
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Looking after themselves and family only
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cognitive- behavioral
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Specific behavioral learned over time associated with abnormal belief systems
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Dissociative Disorder
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involves a dislocation in consciousness, memory, or a sense of identity, associated with extreme trauma or stress.
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dissociative amnesia
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one cannot remember PERSONAL information
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dissociative fugue
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person takes sudden TRIP and cannot remember traveling or personal information
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dissociative identity disorder
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person seems to experience at last one or more personality disorders.
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cognitive therapies
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action-based therapies that focus on helping people change their ways of thinking, emphasis on identifying distorted and unrealistic beliefs that leads to unusual behavior and then replacing them with positive behavior
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free association
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originally developed by Breuer, involved patients freely talking about whatever came to mind, believed to reveal unconscious concerns
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modern psychodynamic approach
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focuses more on the go and sense of self rather then the id. More directive then it was historically
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interpersonal therapy (IPT)
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electric therapy with some theoretical roots in the psychodynamic approach but combines combines aspects from humanistic and cognitive behavioral therapies