10th Grade Chemistry 1H Nuclear Chemistry

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nucleons
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protons and neutrons in the nucleus
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nuclide
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atom; identified by the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
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mass defect
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difference between mass of atom (determined experimentally) and sum of the masses of subatomic particles (what you’re expecting)
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subastomic particles
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electron, proton, and neutron
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nuclear binding energy
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energy released when a nucleus is formed from nucleons
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binding energy per nucleon
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binding energy of the nucleus divided by the number of nucleons it contains
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band of stability
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stable nuclei cluster over a range of neutron-proton ratios
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nuclear shell model
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nucleons exist in different energy levels, or shells in the nucleus
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magic numbers
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number of nucleon that represent completed nuclear energy levels 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126
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nuclear reaction
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reaction that affects the nucleus of an atom
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transmutation
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change in identity of a nucleus as a result of a change in the number of its protons (becomes a different element)
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radioactive decay
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spontaneous disintegration of a nucleus into a slightly lighter nucleus, accompanied by emission of particles, electromagnetic radionation, or both
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nuclear radiation
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particles or electromagnetic raditiation emitted from the nucleus during radioactive decay
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radioactive nuclide
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unstable nucleus that undergoes radioactive decay
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alpha particle
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4He 2 nucleus of helium atom, no electrons; results in decrease in mass and atomic number typically only occur with heavy nuclides
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beta particle
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0 e -1 electron-virtually no mass, negative charge, increase in atomic number
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gammy rays
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0 y 0 high energy photons typically another type of decay
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positron emission
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positron-proton becomes a neutron or positron particle that has mass of electron; has positive charge
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K-electron capture
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electron capture-a proton and electron combine to form a neutron nuclear particle is a reactant not product
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parent nuclide
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product
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daughter nuclide
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elemental species that is formed from decay
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Roentgen
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unit used to measure nuclear radiation, equal to amount of radiation that produces 2 x 10^9 ion pairs when it passes through 1 cm^3 of dry air
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rem ‘roentgen equivalent, man”
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quality of ionizing radiation that does as much damage to human tissue as id done by 1 roentgen of high voltage rays
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film badges
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exposure of film to mesure the approximate radation exposure of people working with radiation
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Geiger-Muller counters
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detect radiation by counting electric pulses carried by gas ionized by radiation
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scintillation counters
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instruments that conver scintillation light to an electric sign for detecting radiation
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half life
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time required for half the atoms of a radioactive nuclide to decay
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artifical radioactive nuclides
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not found in nature and are made through artificial transmutation
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artificial transmutation
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bombardment of stable nuclei with charged and uncharged particles (comes op with something not previously charged)
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transuranium elements
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alements with more than 92 protons in their nuclei
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radioactive dating
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approximated age of an object is determined based on amount of certain radioactive nuclides present At=A0e^/1.213×10^-4xt
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radioactive tracters
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radioactive atoms that are incorporated into substances so that movement of the substance can be followed by radiation detectors
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nuclear fission
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occurs when very heavy nucleus splits into more-stable nuclei of intermediate mass
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chain reaction
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reaction when material that starts reaction is one of the products
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critical mass
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minimum amount of a nuclide to provide sustained chain reaction
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nuclear power plants
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use heat from nuclear reactors to produce electrical energy
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control rods
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neutron-absorbing rods that help to control reactions
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shielding
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radiation-absorbing material used to decrease radiation exposure
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moderator
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used to slow down fast neutrons produced by fission
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nuclear fusion
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occur when light mass nuclei combine to form a heavier more stable nucleus
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fission
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separates a nucleus
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fusion
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combines a nucleus

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