002 English: Comprehensive

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Upton Sinclair
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American novelist, journalist and essayist; “The Jungle” – attacked and exposed abuses in the Chicago meat packing industry – instrumental in forcing the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act; “King Coal”, “Boston”; A “muckracker”
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Muckracker
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A socially minded band of writers who decried and attacked perceived immoral conduct in business and government
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Johan Strindberg
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Swedish novelist, playwright, essayist and short-fiction writer; “The Red Room” – bohemian life in Sweden; Blending realism and naturalism together in a unique manner; “The Father”, “Miss Julie”; later works turned to symbolism mixed with expressionism for “Ghost Sonata”, “The Great Highway” – autobiographical plays; An unhappy childhood followed by 3 failed marriages influenced his work
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Ford Madox Ford (Ford Hermann Hueffer)
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English novelist and critic; “The Good Solider” narrates an unhappy marriage in English upper class; BFF’s with Joesph Conrad – Collaborated two novels “The Inheritors” and “Romance”, “Parade’s End” – a trilogy of novels set in America and Europe; Fought in France in World War I
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Gertrude Stein
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American poet, essayist, novelist and short-story writer; “Three Lives” – a novel of working class women; “Tender Objects, Food, and Rooms” her poetry collection; “The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas” her autobiography (Alice B. Toklas was her secretary and partner); BFF’s with Picasso, Hemingway and Ford Madox Ford; Flamboyant figure in Paris famous for her acid tongue and wit
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Rabindranath Tagore
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Indian poet, playwright, novelist, short-fiction writer and songwriter; Best known for his spiritual poetry written in Bengali – 1st collection was “The ideal One”; Noted for his lyrical, spiritual poetry; “Song Offerings” – Won a Novel Prize in Literature (1911); “The Hungry Stones”, “Broken Ties” – Stories of village Begal life
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D.H. Lawrence
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English novelist, poet, essayist and short-fiction writer; “Sons and Lovers”, “The Rainbow”, “Women in Love”, “Lady Chatterly’s Lover” – banned in England for 30 yrs; Books focused on love, class, social standing and sexuality; The intensity to his work and life that sometimes scandalized peers
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George Bernard Shaw
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British playwright and critic; Published his collection of dramas in “Plays Pleasant and Unpleasant” – included some of his best work including his critical prefaces; “Caesar and Cleopatra”, “Major Barbara”, “Pygmalion”, “St. Joan”; Awarded the Nobel prize in Literature (1925); Chose controversial topics for his drams, stressing realistic social problems – satirized social class and gender discrimination with a light touch that made its points w/o anger
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Marcel Proust
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French novelist; “Remembrance of Things Past” – epic seven-part masterpiece that examines the existential problem of finding meaning and value in the maelstrom of life; uses the device of interior monologue – views the transient nature of life and the flux of consciousness using observation of detail
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Thomas Sterns Eliot
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American poet, playwright and critic; “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock”, “The Waste Land” – Struggled with his own despair at the futility of life and the spiritual barrenness of modern life, he addressed these themes in “The Waste Land”; “Murder in the Cathedral”, “The Cocktail Party” – dramas
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Robert Frost
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American poet; Master of technical aspects of poetry while remaining true to his New England heritage; “Stopping by the Woods on a Snowy Evening”, “The Road Not Taken”, “West Running Brook”, “A Witness Tree”, “In the Clearing”; Received the Pulitzer Prize 4 times; Read “The Gift Outright” at the inaugural of John Kennedy in 1961
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Frantz Kafka
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Prague born and German writing novelist and short-story writer; Uses powerful symbolism; Addresses anxieties and chaos of modern society; “The Metamorphosis”, “In the Penal Colony”, “The Hunger Artist”; Instructed his executor and literary agent, Max Brod, to destroy his work after his death but Brod instead published them – “The Trial”, “The Castle”, “Amerika”; Fiction was dark, wounding, arresting and sometimes painful
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James Joyce
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Irish novelist and short-story writer; Developed a style rich in innovative literary technique and creative language; “The Dubliners”, “A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man” – novels and dramas “Exiles” and “Ulysses”; “Finnegan’s Wake” – novel
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Edna St. Vinceny Millay
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American poet; Won a poetry contest in 1902 for “Renascence”, Won the Pulitzer Prize for her poetry “The Ballad of the Harp-weaver”; “A Few Twigs from Thistles”, “Fatal Interview”, “Wine From These Grapes”, “Conversation at Midnight”, “Make the Bright Arrows”, “Collected Poems”
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Virginia Woolf (Adele Virginia Stephen)
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English novelist, short-fiction writer, essayist, critic; One of the most creative and influential writers of the 20th century; “Jacobs Room” using her steam of consciousness method of interior monologues to develop an absent character; “Mrs. Dalloway”, “To This Lighthouse”, “The Waves”; Her families home was the center of the group of authors, artists and thinkers known as the Bloomsbury Group; Committed suicide by drowning
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Sprung rhythm
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Attempts to duplicate human speech – developed by Gerald Manley Hopkins
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Gerald Manley Hopkins
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English poet; “The Wreck of the Deutschland”, “The Windhover”, “Pied Beauty”, “God’s Grandeur” and “Carrion Comfort”; Poems were written in a period of personal depression and religious doubt; He developed a style called “sprung rhythm
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Willa Cather
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American novelist, short-story writer and essayist; “Oh Pioneers” which narrated the story of an immigrant family’s struggle in the new world; “My Antonia” a story of a woman’s struggle and eventual triumph on the prairie; Won Pulitzer Prize in 1922 for “One of Ours”; “Death Comes for the Archbishop” – Pioneering spirit in America; Other writing examines the topics of art, loss and disillusionment; “Sapphira and the Slave Girl” – a novel on the American Civil War
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Wilfred Owen
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English poet; Best known as a scathing indictment against war based on his experiences in France during World War I; His language is starkly realistic in depicting the horrors of war; “Poems” include “Strange Meeting”, “Anthem for Doomed Youth” – Owen’s verse was used in Benjamin Britten’s “War Requiem”
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Katherine Mansfield Beauchamp
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New Zealand short-story writer; “In a German Pension”, “Bliss”, “The Garden Party and Other Stories”, “Prelude”; Her style and strength was the complex and subtle development of her characters, probing their psychological depths
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Dame Agatha Christie
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English novelist and playwright; Wrote over 80 detective novels; Created Hercules Poirot and Miss Jane Marple; “The Mousetrap” – the longest running play in the history of drama
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Edward Estlin Cummings (E.E. Cummings)
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American poet and novelist; Noted for his unique writing style, using unconventional punctuation and typography, innovative language and imagery; “The Enormous Room”; His verse is often light and joyful but contains a great depth of irony and complex feelings; “Tulips and Chimney’s”, “50 Poems”, “Ninety-Five Poems”, “73 Poems”
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Rene’ Maria Rilke
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German poet; Themes of life and death; Explore man’s relationship to the Divine and particularly humanity’s perception of the universal; “The Book of Images”, “Duino Elegies”, “Sonnets to Orpheus” and “New Plans”
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Edward Morgan Forster
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English novelist, essayist and critic; “A Room With a View”, “Howard’s End”, “The Longest Journey” and “Where Angels Fear To Tread” – Addressed subjects such as social justice, materialism and spirituality and dissolution of the English upper classes; His masterpiece “A Passage to India” was inspired by several visits to India and Fosters service in Egypt in WWI
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Thomas Mann
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German novelist and essayist; Focused on art and the struggle of the artist to flourish in European society; “Buddenbrooks”, “Death in Venice”, “The Magic Mountain”, “Dr Faustus”, “Joesph and His Brothers” ; Won Nobel Prize for Literature in 1929
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Ezra Pound
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American poet, critic and editor; “The Cantos”; His influence as a critic was formidable – he fostered the work of Robert Frost, Ernest Hemingway, James Joyce and T.S. Eliot; Important imagist, advocating the use of free meter, and the extravagant use of image; Associated with Mussolini and his fascist regime, Pound was arrested for treasonable propganda
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William Faulkner
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American novelist and short-story writer; Wrote almost solely about southern history in his fiction; “Sartoris”, “The Sound and The Fury”, “As I Lay Dying”, “Absalom, “Absolom”, “Sanctuary”, “Go Down, Moses”; Nobel Prize in Literature in 1949; Won two Pulitzer Prizes; Recurring themes include Southern aristocracy’s attempt to survive in the modern world, racial inequality in the South and burdens of slavery carried by his characters
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Hart Crane
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American poet; “The Bridge” – 18 part epic poem based on the Brooklyn Bridge celebrates America’s muscular industrial strength in a manner that precedes Carl Sandburg – combines cold imagery with technical dexterity; Committed suicide by jumping off of the ship into the ocean
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John Dos Passos
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American novelist; Wrote sobering fiction and prose about the decline of the US both spiritually and socially; “U.S.A.” – Trilogy of novels; His jaundiced view of America is based on his observations of a country deeply divided by class and coarsened by commercialism; Worked with Ernest Hemingway; Recurring theme of a negative view of American society
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Aldous Huxley
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English novelist and social critic; Created a hellish vision of the future in “Brave New World” – describing a society based on technology and social control, summation of a generation’s fears about the future; “Island” reflecting his interest in eastern spirituality and metaphysics; “After Many A Summer Dies The Swan” indicates growing distrust of politics and social trends
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Henry Miller
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American novelist, short-fiction writer and essayist; Banned initially in the US – “Tropic of Cancer” and “Tropic of Capricorn” – two autobiographical novels caused an uproar because of their controversial treatment of sex; “The Rosy Crucifixion” – trilogy based on Miller’s life
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Lillian Hellman
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American playwright and diarists; “The Children’s Hour” a play about two schoolteachers who are accused of being Lesbians; “The Little Foxes” a portrait of a ruthless southern family, “Nazi Watch On the Rhine”, “Toys In The Attic” – notable plays
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Anna Akmatova (Andreyevna Gorenko)
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Russian poet; Work is set against repression in the Soviet Union; “Vecher” – first book; “Requiem” – epic poem; was a response to her husband’s execution by the Soviets; “Poem Without A Hero” regarded as her masterpiece and narrated the difficulties of an artist working in a repressive regime; Stalinist officials banned her work for 20 yrs judging it to be too concerned with love and God
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John Steinbeck
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American novelist and short-story writer; Wrote realistic style about the lives of common people; Most important work describes the plight of itinerant workers set in rural and industrial California; “Of Mice and Men” – Pulitzer Prize; “The Grapes of Wrath” – depression stricken “dust bowl” and a refugee family’s travails; “Cannery Row”, “East of Eden”, “Travels of Charley”; Novel Prize in Literature in 1962
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Robert Penn Warren
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Influential American novelist, poet and critic; “All The King’s Men” – Pulitzer Prize winning novel – based loosely on the life of Huey P. Long; “World Enough and Time”, “The Circus In The Attic”; “Now and Then” – Won the Pulitzer Prize for the collection of poetry; Named Poet Laureate of the United States in 1985
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Richard Wright
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American novelist and short-fiction writer; One of the most influential black voices in American literature; “Uncle Tom’s Children” – included four novellas and won critical acclaim; “Native Son”, “The Outsider”, “Black Boy”
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Wystan Hugh Auden
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English poet, playwright, critic, editor and translator; Best known for his verse – witty, musical, and innovative in the use of rhythms; “The Age of Anxiety” – won him a Pulitzer Prize for poetry; “Another Time”, “The Double Man”, “Nuns” – National Book Award winner, “The Shield of Achilles”; BFF’s with Brittan and Stravinsky
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Carson McCullers (Lula Carson Smith)
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American novelist; Set her fiction in the small Southern towns she grew up in as a child; Her themes were alienation, loneliness, and spiritual longing; “The Member Of the Wedding” narrates the story of a lonely adolescent girl in a Southern town, who lives vicariously through her brother; “The Heart Is A Lonely Hunter”, “Reflections In A Golden Eye”, “Clock Without Hands”, “The Mortgaged Heart”; Studied music at Julliard
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Henry Adams
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American editor, biographer and historian famed for his autobiography, “The Education of Henry Adams”; “Democracy, an American Novel”, “Esther”; “History of the United States During the Administrations of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison” – nine volumes
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F. Scott Fitzgerald
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American novelist and short-story writer; “This Side of Paradise” – novel of the jazz age; “The Great Gatsby” – chronicles the life of a bootlegger who reforms; “Tender is the Night” – a largely autobiographical novel about a psychiatrist’s failing fight to save his wife from mental illness
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Ernest Hemingway
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American novelist and short-story writer; Modernist master who became a legendary figure; “The Sun Also Rises”, “A Farewell to Arms” based on WWI experiences; “For Whom the Bell Tolls” based on the Spanish Civil War, “The Old Man and the Sea”, a novel about a Cuban fisherman; Awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954
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Erich Maria Remarque (Erich Paul Remark)
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German novelist and literary figure; “All Quiet on the Western Front” – Experiences as a solider in WWI formed the subject of this novel
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Clifford Odets
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American playwright; Forte was social protest theatre in which he became a leader; 1st success – “Waiting For Lefty”, “Awake and Sing” – powerful depictions of class struggle; “Golden Boy”, “The Country Girl” – a story of an alcoholic actor’s attempt at a comeback
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Margaret Mitchell
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“Gone With the Wind”; Novel won a Pulitzer Prize – Narrates a Southern Belle’s rise and fall set against the panorama of the planter South and the American Civil War, the protagonist, Scarlett O’Hara, suffers the end of her Southern society and her values, before becoming a resilient and successful survivor; Wrote over a 10 year period
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Oral Assessments
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Used when written assessments are not feasible and to evaluate a student’s mastery of a specific topic (verbal language proficiency, debating skills, ability to think/respond quickly)
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Oral Presentations
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A flexible assessment tool that can be assigned to an individual student or group project
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Oral presentations can show student growth and development in several areas…including:
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1. Understanding the subject 2. Planning and organizing abilities 3. Communication skills
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Performance Assessment
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Used to evaluate students’ progress in a specific task (ex. demonstrating a skill, solving a complex problem with multiple parts)
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Choruses
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A group of actors that furnishes a commentary on the play as it unfolds (used in Greek Drama) – The chorus is an objective observer of the dramatic action
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Theatre-in-the-Round or the Arena Stage
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Allows the audience to surround the stage (widely used today in smaller experimental theatres)
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Apron or Thrust Stage
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Seats the audience on the side of a platform – Less commonly used today (Shakespeare’s Globe Theatre was an early form)
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Proscenium Stage
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Most commonly used stage; Audience sits in front of a stage framed by the acting space – Very common in drama, opera and musical presentations
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Analysis of _______ and _______ is important in the critical study of drama.
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speech; dialogue
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Novellas
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A work of narrative fiction longer than a short story but shorter than a novel
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Stock characters
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Similar to flat characters, filing out the story without influencing it
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Freudian psychology has given rise to what devices in modern literature?
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– Interior monologue – Magic realism
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Drama
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Any work where actors or actresses assume roles before an audience, either in theatre, motion picture, television, or radio
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Tragicomedy
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A drama the includes both comic and tragic elements – typically a bittersweet mix or literary value
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Comedy
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This type of drama satirizes the misadventures of its characters
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Drama Plot – Progression Pattern
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1. Exposition 2. Complication 3. Reversal 4. Recognition 5. Resolution
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Comedy of Manners (genre)
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Concerned with the conflict between characters formed by particular social and cultural conditions
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Realist Fiction
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Consists of stories that could have actually occurred to people or animals in a believable setting
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Apostrophe
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Occurs when a characters addresses an abstract idea or a persona not present in the scene; there may be other characters in the scene but not addressed
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Antistrophe
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A device in Greek drama where the chorus responds to a previous stanza of verse – rarely seen today
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Mystery Plays
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Dramatic works based on the bible
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Passion Plays
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Specialized mystery plays based on the passion of the Christ
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Heroic Dramas
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Featured heroes of epic deeds; Usually written in blank verse or heroic couplets
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Restoration Period
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King Charles II reign of England (1660 – 1689)
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No
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A form of traditional Japanese theatre that uses music, dance and poetry; creates a serene and peaceful mood through spectacle and imagery
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Bedroom Farce
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A special type of comedy based on the foibles of attempted seduction
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Farce is best known by the public through ______ _____.
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Silent films made famous by Charlie Chaplin
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Lyric Poetry
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The voice if the poem evokes a particular feeling or attitude
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Scansion
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The process of determining the meter of a poem
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What are the different types of foot in English verse lines?
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– iambic – trochaic – dactylic – anapestic – spondaic
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Accent
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A recurring stress in a line of verse; The number and order of accented syllables determine the meter of a line or poem
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Aubades
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Poems in which lovers must part, usually at the break of dawn
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Cantos
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Major sections of long poems
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All of Shakespeare’s sonnets end in a ______
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Couplet
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Dithyrambs
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Dramatic and structurally irregular lyric poems
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Ecologies
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Originally poems set in pastoral environments but now has come to mean a poem that evokes serious reflection and meditation
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End Ryhme
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Occurs at the close of a rhyme; End rhyme is “perfect”, it involves identical sounds
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Half rhyme; “Slant Rhyme”
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Involves a closeness of sounds but are not identical
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Masculine Rhyme
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Rhyming elements comprise single stressed syllables
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Feminine Rhyme
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Rhyming elements comprise unstressed syllables
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Eye Rhyme
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Joins similarly spelled words that are pronounced differently
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Internal Rhyme
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Involves repeated elements in a line rather than at its end
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Epics
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Originally, long narrative poems, focused on a hero’s adventures and triumphs; Have come to mean any dramatic work of poetry, prose, drama, film or music that depends on spectacles and lavish productions sometimes based on historical events
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Essays
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Usually defined as a prose composition dealing with one or two topics; tend to be informal in style and are usually personal in approach and opinion
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Verbal irony
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Sarcasm
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Minstrels
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The early performers of ballads and were important in preserving the cultural and historical records of many people
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Publius Ovidius Naso (Ovid)
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Great Roman poet, known for his passionate, technically skilled, and witty poetry; “Metamorphoses” written on the theme of transformation in Greek and Roman myth; “Amores” (his love narrative); exiled for unknown reasons to the Black Sea until death
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Geoffery Chaucer
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Regarded as the greatest of the Middle English authors; wrote “The Canterbury Tales” which presents 24 stories told by a group of pilgrims traveling to Canterbury; the tales range over many subjects – romance, religious themes, bawdy verses, etc.
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Spenserian Stanza
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Based on an Italian poetic scheme – Penning sonnet sequences and notable short verses
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John Milton
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“The prince of poets”; “Paradise Lost” – 1667, “Paradise Regained” and “Samson Agnoistes” – 1671; blind since 1652
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Alexander Pope
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English poet and satirist; “The Rape of Lock” narrating a feud started over a lock of hair – “An Essay on Criticism” poem about writing filled with satire including translation of Homer’s “Iliad” and “Odyssey”; style featured biting wit
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Daniel Defoe
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“Robinson Crusoe”, “Moll Flanders” and 500 other books; Considered to be England’s first novelist; author and journalist – his political pamphlets earned him a short term in prison
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Jonathan Swift
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Irish satirist, wrote on a variety of subjects (economics, politics, society and manners); “Gulliver’s Travels” – satire on the human condition published in 1726; “Tale of a Tab”, “Drapier’s Letters” and “A Modest Proposal” – his estate granted a large sum to found a hospital for the mentally ill
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Henry Fielding
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English novelist and playwright; Considered to be a pioneer in novel writing; Wrote over 25 plays before turning to novels; “Tom Jones”, “Amelia”, “The Life of Mr. Jonathan Wild the Great”, “The Champion” and “Joseph Andrews”; Adept in social satire and comedy; Served as a judge in London during 1700’s
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Samuel Johnson
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English poet, essayist, biographer, lexicographer, dominated the literary period of the mid 18th century; He organized the first dictionary for the English language; “The Vanity of Human Wishes” was considered his greatest poem; 1709 – 1784 become known as “The Age of Johnson” (impressive…)
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Lexicographer
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A person who complies dictionaries
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Jean-Jacques Rousseau
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Swiss-born novelist, essayist, philosopher, and intellect; “The Social Contract” was his polemic for changing society – the ideas expressed in his work helped ignite the French and American revolutions; “Julie” and “Emile” – novels
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Robert Burns
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Famed Scottish poet; “Auld Land Syne”, “A Red, Red, Rose”, “Tam o Shanter” and “Poems, Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect”; Supported the French Revolution (1700’s)
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James Boswell
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Scottish biographer and essayist; “The Life of Samuel Johnson” and “An Account of Corsica” which narrated that island’s movement for independence; Best friends with Samuel Johnson – traveled with him for the last 25 years of Sams’ life
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Johann Wolfgang con Goethe
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German poet, novelist and playwright; “Storm and Stress”; lyric poem “Hermann and Dorothea”; drama “Faust” which narrates the tale of the scholar who trades his soul for knowledge and pleasure; essay/autobiography “Poetry and Truth”; novel “The Sorrows of Young Werther” narrated emotional pain of the protagonist/author; BFF’s with Frederich von Schiller
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Neoclassical Model (poetry)
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Poetry written in the manner in which people actually spoke – created by William Wordsworth
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William Cullen Bryant
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American poet, critic and prose writer; “Thanatopsis” – revelry on death (1817); much of his work focuses on natural beauty; “To a Waterfowl”; Worked for the New York Evening Post and was an advocate for slavery and worker rights
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Sir Walter Scott
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Scottish poet and novelist; Began his literary career by collecting traditional ballads of Scotland and publishing them in an anthology; specialized in romantic themed poetry – “The Lady of the Lake”, “The Lay of the Last Minstral”; also his historical novels “Waverley Novels” included “Rob Roy”, “Ivanhoe”, “Kenilworth” and “The Bride of Lammermoor”
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Anthology
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A published collection of poems or other writings
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Washington Irving
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American novelist, essayist and short-story writer; “Rip Van Winkle” and “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow” – astute critic, essayist and folklore expert – later works “Legends of the Alhambra”, “Christopher Columbus” and “A Tour of the Prairies”; Upon his death in 1859 he was called “the first American Man of Letters”
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Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin (Mary Shelley)
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English novelist; “Frankenstein” published in 1818; “Valperga”, “The Last Man” and “Lodore”; She eloped with Percy Shelley; Suffered from several miscarriages and her husbands drowning
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James Fenimore Cooper
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American novelist; “The Leatherstocking Tales” which include “The Pioneers”, “The Last of the Mohicans”, “The Pathfinder” and “The Deerslayer”; Adventure novels in nautical settings “The Pilot” being the most important; Expelled from Yale University for unknown reasons in 1800’s
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Victor Hugo
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French playwright, novelist and poet; Giant figure during Romantic revolution in the French arts; “Les Miserables”, “The Hunchback of Notre-Dame” and “The Punishments”; Wrote drama, verse plays and poetry; The most popular author in France for 3 decades; Hugo left France for 19 years after Napoleon III came to power
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Heinrich Heine
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Greatest poet of the German post-Romantic period; First collection “The Book of Songs” (1827); Most controversial work “Germany, a Winter’s Tale”, an epic satire on German politics; Work has been banned in Germany and he is forbidden to return to his homeland
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Honore’ de Balzcac
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French novelist wrote almost 100 fiction works of fiction in 51 years; Named his body of literature “The Human Comedy” – realistic description of 19th-century French society and manners; “The Black Sheep” and “Cousin Bette”; Obsessive worker, sometimes writing for days without rest
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Stendal (Marie Henri Beyel)
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French novelist; Reflected deep and subtle psychological themes, irony, cool, detached prose and great realism; “The Red and the Black”, “The Charterhouse of Parma”, “The Life of Henry Brulard” and the “Memoirs of an Egotist”
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Allen Ginsberg
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American poet; Major figure in “Beat Generation”; “Howl” became a rallying cry for the counterculture revolution; Draws from traditions of free verse and symbolism; “Kaddish”, “The Fall of America”, “Reality Sandwiches”
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Beat Generation
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A group of American post-World War II writers (Allen Ginsberg, William S Burroughs and Jack Kerouac) who came to prominence in the 1950s, as well as the cultural phenomena that they both documented and inspired: Known for their non-conformity and spontaneous creativity
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Eugene O’Neill
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American playwright (pioneer in American drama); Won four Pulitzer Prizes and the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1936; “Long Day’s Journey Into Night”, “The Iceman Cometh” and “Strange Interlude”; Experimented with realism and naturalism
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Voltaire (Francois-Marie Arouet)
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French novelist, poet, playwright and philosopher; Vocal and literate advocate for freedom of thought, political justice and humanism in 18th-century France; Fame is for his essays and letters defending human rights and arguing for reason and tolerance; “Candide” and “Zadig” – fiction that blends philosophy and humanism; Many of his works were banned during his lifetime
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Aleksandra Pushkin
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Russian poet, playwright and short story writer; “The Prisoner of Caucasus”, “The Gypsies”, “Boris Goduvov”and “Eugene Onegin”; Master of the short story – “The Queen of Shades”; Innovative and experiments with language, form and characterization; Exiled from Russia for writing poetry critical of the Tsar – allowed to return by the new Tsar in 1826; Killed wife lover’s in a DUEL
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George Sand (Amadine-Auroe-Lucile Dupin)
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French woman of letters; Essayist, novelist, playwright; Themes of love, romance and early feminist philosophy; “She and He”, “Little Fadette” and “The County Waif”; Mixed socialist and feminist ideas with erotic language and criticisms of society (What a badass)
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Ralph Waldo Emerson
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American essayist, poet and Transcendentalist philosopher; “Nature” – proclaimed the unity of nature and the universe and his belief that each man finds his way to the Divine through individual apprehension; “Essays” – split into two volumes of “Love”, “Friendship”, “The Oversoul” and “May Day”
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Henry Thoreau
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American essayist and naturalist who published only two books in his life: “A Week on the Concord and Merrimac” – A failure and his prospects seemed dim; “Walden” narrated Thoreau’s experiment in simple living in a cabin on Walden pond for two years; Wrote extensively on nature, society and the spirit on individualism for many years; Wrote the essay “Civil Disobedience”
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Nathaniel Hawthorne
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American fiction writer; Believing man is imperfect, a mixture of good and evil and his work reflected his view; “A Twice Told Tales”, “The Scarlet Letter”, “House of the Seven Gables”; Grew up in Salem
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Charles Dickens
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“The Pickwick Papers”, “Oliver Twist”, “Nicholas Nickelby”, A Christmas Carol”, “Great Expectations”, “A Tale of Two Cities” and “David Copperfield”; Genuis for creating memorable characters and ablity to evoke a sense of 19th-century England; Extremely successful – Some thought he was England’s greatest novelist
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Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
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American poet; “Hiawatha”, “Evageline”, “Tales of the Wayside Inn” – “Paul Reverie’s Ride” a beloved schoolchildren’s poem; Most popular American poets of his day (1807 – 1882)
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Edgar Allen Poe
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American poet, novelist and short-story writer; Tales of terror; “Tales of Grotesque and Arabesque”, “The Raven”, “The Bells”, “Annabel Lee”, “Ulaume”, The Pit and the Pendulum”, “The Tell-Tale Heart” and “The Gold-Bug”; Married his cousin; Drug addict and alcoholic
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Alfred, Lord Tennyson
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English poet; “Poems, Chiefly Lyrical”, “Maud and other Poems”, “Ldylls of the King, “Demeter and other Poems”, The Charge of the Light Brigade”, “Mariana” and “Crossing the Bar”; Wrote of history, honor and faith, championing Victorian values and mastering the technical elements of poetry; Published the first book of verse at Cambridge; Was named Poet Laureate of England by Queen Victoria in 1850
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Nikolai Gogol
answer

Russian playwright, novelist, short-story author; Wrote sharp satirical prose in an innovative style; “Mirogorod” and “Arabesques”; “Dead Souls” – a biting satire on the feudal Russia; Burnt the the sequel to “Dead Souls” and then starved himself to death
question

Alexander Dumas
answer

French novelist and playwright was the most popular literary figure in France in his time; “The Three Musketeers”, “The Count Monte Cristo” and “The Man in the Iron Mask”; His forte was historical novels, usually with heroic figures and imaginative plots that captured the fancy of the public
question

William Makepeace Thackeray
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Victorian English novelist and satirist; Started writing career doing satirical pieces for magazines and weekly’s – “The Book of Snobs”, “Vanity Fair” – follows Becky Sharp as she attempts to climb the social ladder of English society; Strength as a writer was his ability to describe the moralistic hypocrisy of British society
question

Fydor Dostoyevsky
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Russian novelist, journalist and short-story writer; Master of psychological character; Unusual skill as a prose writer and ranks as the greatest of Russian writers; “Crime and Punishment” (1867) – narrating murder and its aftermath; “The Idiot”, “The Possessed”, “The Brothers Karamazov” – all deal with the criminal mind and the struggles within the human psyche; Son of a physician who was murdered by serfs when Fydor was in his late teens
question

Herman Melville
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American novelist, poet and short-story writer; Wrote adventure stories, “Typee”, “Omoo”; novel “Moby Dick” – allegory about men, life, and obsession; Stalked by tragedy – Death of his two sons and financial revereses
question

Harriet Beecher Stowe
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American novelist; “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” – Novel about the horrors of slavery – Became a bible for the abolitionist cause; Some credit it as a catalyst for the American Civil War – 3 million copies were sold in the decade after it was published and it was translated into 25 languages; “Oldtown Folks”, “The Minister’s Wooing”
question

Walt Whitman
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American poet and journalist; Style mirrored the American ideal – democratic, idealistic free flowing and panoramic in perspective; “Leaves of Grass” using free verse, embodied what Whitman conceived as the American spirit; Was the editor of the “Brooklyn Eagle” in 1846
question

Anthony Trollope
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English novelist; Famed for his descriptions of Victorian life and vivid characters; His finest works were two novel sequences – “The Barsetshire Novels” – consisting of four volumes and “Palliser Novels” – politically themed
question

Robert Browning
answer

Major Victorian poet known for his skill in characterization, psychological nuances and his colorful and dramatic dialogue; “Dramatic Lyrics”, “Dramatis Personae”; His technical skill remains his greatest legacy; Married Elizabeth Barret – they began talking through letters – which created one of the great literary romances
question

Charles Baudelaire
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French essayist, poet and critic; “The Flowers of Evil” – combines macabre imagery and a profane, cynical tone; Baudelaire was prosecute and fined for obscenity following its publication; BFF’s with Courbet, Delacroix and Manet (all painters); After getting inheritance, he became addicted to opium and alcohol – died of syphilis (his life was horrible!)
question

Gustave Flaubert
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French author of fiction, a master of the novel and adept at short-stories; “Madame Bovary” (1857) – narrative of adulterous affairs of middle class French woman; Flaubert was prosecuted for the book’s “immorality”; Recognized as a pioneer in modern fiction writing
question

Emily Dickenson
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American poet; Poetry is highly formal, her language is both subtle and creative; Reflective of the quiet life she led; Topics include death, art, love, pain and betrayal; She wrote over 1800 poems, yet only 10 are known to be published in her lifetime
question

Willkie Collins
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English novelist; Pioneer of mystery story and novel; “Antonia, or The Fall of Rome”, “Basil” (1st novel of suspense); “The Moonstone”, “The Woman in White”, “Armadale”, “The New Magdalen”, “The Haunted Hotel” and “Heart and Science”; BFF’s with Charles Dickens
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Christina Rosseti
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English Victorian poet; “Goblin Market and other Poems”, “The Prince’s Progress and other Poems”, “Time Files”; Children’s poetry – “Sing-Song”; She was a devout high Anglican and her work often reflected this
question

Ivan Turgenev
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Russian novelist, playwright and short-story writer; Wrote politically inflammatory stories criticizing Russian serfdom and government; “Fathers and Sons”, “On the Eve”, “Smoke”, “The Virgin Soil”, “A Month in the Country”
question

Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson)
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American author; “Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland”, “Through the Looking Glass”; Wrote several significant works on logical and mathematics; “Alice” was inspired by his favorite child-friend, Alice Liddell, and her two sisters to who he related the story
question

Matthew Arnold
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English poet and critic; Published 6 volumes of collected verse in his life, covering a wide range of subjects and moods; Much of his poetry evokes sadness and despair; “Dover Beach” – Loss of faith in the modern age; Believed that literature and culture should be inculcated into society for moral and spiritual reasons
question

Count Leo Tolstoy
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Russia’s leading novelist and moral philosopher; Fictional masterpieces – “War and Peace” – love story set in the Napoleonic wars and provides a panoramic view of Russian life and “Anna Karenina” – the story of a woman who gives up everything for her love; Both are novels are great philosophical and psychological depth
question

Louisa May Alcott
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American writer, novelist and short-story writer; “Little Women”- Family life based partially on her own family – it is romantic, yet realistic with strong and memorable characters; “Little Men”, “Rose in the Bloom”, Moods”, “Work”; Began her career publishing “dime novels” under pseudonyms to make a living
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Emile Zola
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French novelist; Wrote finely detailed narratives with a realistic eye; Believed objective observations was necessary to maintain the integrity of his work; “Therese Raquin”, “Les Rougon-Macquart” – 20 volume novel cycle, narrating the fortunes of a 19th-century family over several generations includes prostitution, labor unrest, and alcoholism
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W. S. Gilbert
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English playwright and humorist who teamed with Arthur Sullivan to produce the most popular light verse and comic opera in the English language – produced 17 operettas together; “The Pirates of Penzances”, “The Mikado”, “H.M.S. Pinafore”, “The Yeoman of the Guard”; Most successful partner in life opera ever and in music history ever
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George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans)
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English novelist and essayist; Started her literary career with the publication of “Scenes of a Clerical Life”; “Middlemarch” – richly evocative narration of life in an English country town; Her characters are vivid and memorable; “Silas Marner”, Daniel Deronda”, “The Mill on the Floss”; Her writing was bold and powerful; Had a long relationship with a married man causing a scandal in English society
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Arthur Rimbaud
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French poet; Pioneered the use of free verse in his poetry; “The Drunken Boat” – a surreal poem, “A Season in Hell” – plumbed the depth of his despair, a cry of spiritual longing and the inability to love; Literary career over at the age of 19 due to drugs, alcohol and sensory deprivation; Fell in love with Paul Verlaine (mentor and lover) – they had a violent relationship
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Paul Verlaine
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French poet; Leading light of Symbolist movement; Stressed the importance of suggestion and shading; “Songs Without Words”, “Fetes Galantes”, “Wisdom Love”; Violent affair with Arthur Rimbaud
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Henrik Ibsen
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Norwegian poet and playwright; Known for his realistic and descriptions of modern social problems and psychological dilemmas that haunted his characters; “Peer Gynt”, “A Doll’s House”, “Hedda Gabler”, “The Wild Duck”, “The Master Builder”
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Mark Twain (Samuel Langhorne Clemens)
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True American voice in literature; Humorist, novelist, and travel writer; Best known for “Tom Sawyer”, “The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn” – beloved novels with memorable characters and undertones of social concerns; Both his wife and two daughters died, he also suffered from financial difficulty
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Robert Louis Stevenson
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Scottish essayist, novelist, poet and short-story writer; “Treasure Island” brought his acclaim and wealth; “Kidnapped”, “The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde”, “The Master of Ballantrae”; Children’s book – “A Child’s Garden of Verses”; Life was tainted with chronic tuberculosis and he sought cures and more healthy climates all over the world
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Sir Arthur Conan Coyle
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Created the character Sherlock Holmes; “The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes” – “A Study in Scarlet”, “The Hound of the Baskervilles”, “The Valley of Fear”, “The Sign of Four”
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Thomas Hardy
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English novelist, playwright and short-story writer; Wrote was dark, often drawn from his own experiences; First novel, “Far from the Maddening Crowd” – a tale of a strong woman and her three lovers; “Jude the Obscure”, “The Return of the Native”, “Tess of the D’Urbervilles”, “The Mayor of Casterbridge”
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Oscar Wilde
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Irish writer, poet, critic and playwright; Famed for his wit, repartee and flamboyant life-style; “The Importance of Ernest”, “The Picture of Dorian Gray”, “An Ideal Husband”, “The Happy Price”, “Salome”, “De Profundis” and “The Ballad of Reading Gaol”; Imprisoned for his homosexual activity
question

Charlotte Perkins Gilman
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American writer of short-stories, essays, and poetry; Early feminist and leader in the women’s movement in the early 20’s; She challenged gender stereotypes in her writing; “The Yellow Wallpaper” – A tale of abuse of women, medical science and madness; “Women and Economics”, “Herland”; Suffered from clinical depression and committed suicide
question

H.G. Wells
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English journalist and novelist; Known as the founding father of science fiction; “The Time Machine”, “The Island of Dr. Moreau”, “The War of the Worlds”, “Tono-Bungay”, “The Outline of History”; Socialist who believed the salvation of society would be its techonology
question

Stephen Crane
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American journalist, short-fiction writer and novelist; “The Red Badge of Courage” about a solider in battle; “The Black Ridge and other Lines” (poetry); He was an investigative reporter, writing grim and harshly realistic articles about the poor
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Bram Stoker
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Irish novelist; Created Count Dracula of Transylvania
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Kate Chopin
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American novelist and short-fiction writer; “The Awakening” – the story of a woman’s struggle to attain independence – condemned for its bold use of sexuality, particularly the heroine’s illicit affairs
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Theodore Dreiser
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American novelist; Leader in the literary movement known as “naturalism”; “Sister Carrie” – publisher refused to promote it; “An American Tragedy”, “The Financier”, “The Titan”, “The Stoic”; Writing portrays urban life
question

Naturalism
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Literary ideal based on an objective, dispassionate, description of the world
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Anton Chkov
answer

Russian playwright and short-story writer; Known for his skillful blend of symbolism and naturalism; Combines comedy, tragedy and pathos; “The Black Monk”, “A Dreary Story”, “Ward Number Six”, “The Cherry Orchard”, “Uncle Vanya”, “The Three Sisters” The Seagull”
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Rudyard Kipling
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Favorite writer of the British Empire; Novelist, poet and short-fiction writer; “Kim” – novel of British imperialism which became a window for the world to understand the glory and excesses of the Expire; “Gunga Din”, “Mandalay”, “Danny Deever”; Children’s Book – “The Jungle Book”, “Just So Stories”; Won the Nobel Prize in Literature
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Joseph Conrad (Josef Teodor Konrad Korziniowski)
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Polish-born English novelist; “Almayer’s Folly”, “Lord Jim”, “Typhoon” – Adventure novels of the sea; “Heart of Darkness”, “The Secret Agent” – Psychological thrillers; Noted for his treatment of moral questions and his adriot use of language in his work
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Henry James
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American novelist, short-story writer, playwright and essayist; “The American”, “The Europeans”, Daisy Miller”, “Washington Square”, “The Bostonians”; Mature works use the technique of presenting events through each character’s limited perspective
question

Samuel Butler
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English essayist, critic, and novelist; Best known for his biting satire and savage wit; “Erewhon” – a satire on the public’s belief in universal progress; “The Fair Haven” – an attack on the Resurrection and “Erewhon Revisited”, “The Way of All Flesh” – describes Victorian middle-class life
question

Edith Warton
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American novelist, poet, short-fiction writer and essayist; Expert at narrating character weaknesses; “The House of Mirth” – a novel depicting an individual’s struggles against society’s mores; “Ethan Frome”, “The Age of Innocence” – chronicles a long stormy love affair
question

Jack London
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American novelist, short-fiction writer and essayist; “The Son of the Wolf”, “The Call of the Wild” – the story of a sled-dog that becomes the leader of a wolf pack; “The Sea Wolf”, “White Fang”, “The People of the Abyss”; Traveled to California to find gold; Alcoholic who committed suicide
question

Eudora Welty
answer

American novelist, short-fiction writer, critic and essayist; Great writer of the South – mastered southern vernacular, the culture and the customs of the South; “A Curtain Of Green”, “The Ponder Heart”, “The Optimist’s Daughter” – won her a Pulitzer Prize in 1972
question

Bertolt Brecht
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German playwright and poet; Major contribution to drama was to utilize the stage as a platform for political and social commentary; Believe the stage was a forum for presenting patterns of human behavior – outlined in “Epic Theatre”; “Three Penney Opera”, “Mother Courage and Her Children”, “The Life of Galileo”
question

Albert Camus
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French philosopher, poet, novelist and playwright; Explored the philosophy of the absurd through his work; Examined man’s existence in an indifferent universe and stressed the need for humanistic and moral values in the situation; “The Stranger”, “The Myth of Sisyphus” – both arresting explorations of the absurd; “The Plague”, “The Fall”, “The Rebel”; Intellectual leader of the French Resistance under Nazi occupation; Awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1957
question

Jorge Luis Borges
answer

Argentinean poet, novelist, essayist and short story writer; Combines fantasy, myth and philosophy in a fabric of daily life; “Other Inquisitions” – explains the writer’s philosophy of life and art; “The Book of Imaginary Beings” – combines prose and poetry
question

Jean Genet
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French novelist and playwright; Master of drama and fiction depicting criminal life and anti-social behavior; His absurdist dramas are existentialist nightmares and mix violence and erotic content in a powerful blend; “Our Lady Of the Flowers” – Written in prison while serving a life sentence – Released and then published shocking autobiography “The Thief’s Journal”
question

Tennessee Williams (Thomas Lanier Williams II)
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American playwright – One of the greatest American playwrights of the 20th century; Subject matter was drawn from the earthiest topics and treated with a lyrical touch in a romantic, yet realistic view of America’s South; “The Glass Menagerie”, “A Streetcar Named Desire” – Pulitzer Prize, “Cat on a Hot Tin Root” – Pulitzer Prize, “Suddenly Last Summer”, “Sweet Bird Of Youth”, “The Night of the Iguana”
question

William Carlos Williams
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American poet, novelist and short-story author; Found inspiration for his work in the experiences of every day life; “Paterson” – 5 volume poem based on the city near his home, “Pictures From Brueghel” – 3 volume work, Pulitzer Prize in 1962; Unusual because he practiced both medicine and writing (2 full adult careers) in his lifetime
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Norman Mailer
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American novelist, short-story writer, essayist and journalist; “The Naked and The Dead” – autobiographical novel of WWII; Blended gritty realism with an unique and arresting writing style; “Armies Of The Night” – Pulitzer Prize, “The Executioner’s Song”, “Ancient Evenings”, “Harlot’s Ghost”
question

Arthur Miller
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American playwright; Described the pain of the common man in his stirring dramas; “Death Of A Salesman” – Pulitzer Prize, “The Crucible” – drama about the Salem witch trials; “A View From The Bridge”, “The Price”, “The American Clock”
question

George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair)
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English novelist, critic, playwright; Best known for novels damning totalitarian regimes and doing so with satire; “Animal Farm” and “Nineteen Eighty-Four”; Writing was fueled by his passionate economic and political views
question

Simone de Beauvior
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French novelist, philosopher and memoirist; Powerful intellectual figure in post WWII Europe; “The Second Sex” – A grounding-breaking feminist polemic about the secondary status of women in the world, “The Mandarins” – relates her struggles with the repressive regimes of Vichy (followers of Stalinist excesses)
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Nelson Ahlgren Abraham
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American novelist and short-story writer; Work is noted by the stark reality with which he depicts the lives of the poor; “The Man With The Golden Arm” – about the reality of drug additions – won a National Book Award; “The Neon Wilderness”, “A Walk On The Wild Side”; Born in Detroit (what up bro!) and raised in Chi-town
question

Jerome David Salinger
answer

American novelist and short-fiction writer; “The Catcher In The Rye” – a bible to coming-of-age youth for over 50 years – Holden Caulfield, seeks meaning in a world he finds contrived and artificial; “Nines Stories”, “Franny and Zooey” – narrates young people’s alienation from society; Withstood all attempts to interview or even meet him
question

Anthony Powell
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English novelist; “A Dance To The Music Of Time” – 12 volume opus, grouped in 3 series of 4 novels each – the story of a man’s life over 50 years, form public school through adulthood; His narration is sometimes humorous, often melodramatic
question

Ralph Ellison
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American novelist and essayist; Published only one novel – “The Invisible Man” – candid and realistic examination of race relations in the US – the unnamed protagonist, a black man, realizes his color makes him essentially invisible in American Society – Winner of The National Book Award in 1952; BFF’s with Richard Wright
question

Frank O’Hara
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American poet, playwright and art critic; Leader of a group of poets known as “The New York School” which captured the spirit of New York in conventional and conversational verse; “Lunch Poems”, “Meditations in A Emergency”, “The Day Lady Died”
question

Samuel Beckett
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Irish-French novelist, playwright, short-story writer and poet; Work explores the degradation of modern man with a focus on the essential meaninglessness and absurdity of life; Work contains little action, meaning coming from dialogue and silences; “Waiting For Godot” – allegory of life waiting only on death; Nobel Prize in Literature in 1969; BFF’s with James Joyce
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Dylan Thomas
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Welsh poet and prose writer; “Death And Embraces”, “In Country Sleep” which included his best verse”Do not go gentle into that good night”; Eclectic writer, developing stories and radio scripts; “Under Milk Wood”, “A Child’s Christmas In Wales” – short-story volumes; Best known by the public for his bouts of drinking, strife-ridden relationships and flamboyant personality; Died of alcoholism
question

James Baldwin
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American novelist; playwright and essayist; Became the leading Black author of his time; “Go Tell It On The Mountain” – the story of a teenage boy growing up in Harlem; Work almost exclusively deals with intolerance and the struggle for free expression; “Notes Of A Native Son” – racism in America; Heavily involved in Civil Rights
question

Saul Bellow
answer

Canadian-born American novelist; Noted for ethical intensity in work; Depicted the experiences of urban Jews in American in a new voice; “The Adventures of Augie March”, “Henderson, The Rain King”, “Herzog” – National Book award, “Mr. Sammler’s Planet – Pulitzer Prize, “Humboldt’s Gift”; Pulitzer Prize in Literature in 1976
question

Ray Bradbury
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American novelist, short-fiction writer, playwright and poet; Known as a writer of fantasy and science fiction; Weaves social criticism into his work and shows a constant wariness of the dangers of technology; “Fahrenheit 451”, “The Martin Chronicles”, “The Illustrated Man”‘
question

Wallace Stevens
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American poet; Verse covers a wide scope of themes but recurring theme is the emptiness created by the lack of God; “The Man With The Blue Guitar”, “Transport To Summer”, “Parts Of A World”; Did not publish his first book until 44; Didn’t win a Pulitzer or National Book Award until his last year of life
question

John Ronald Reuel Tolkien
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English novelist; “The Hobbit”, “Lord Of The Rings”; C.S. Lewis urged him to write!
question

Vladimer Nabokov
answer

Russian-born American novelist, critic, and translator; “Lolita” – highly controversial novel about the affair of a middle-aged man and his young step-daughter; “Pale Fire”, “Pinin”, “Ada Or Ardor”
question

Engaging the writer is the most important factor in choosing a ______.
answer

Topic
question

The three purposes of writing are:
answer

1. To entertain 2. To persuade or convince 3. To educate or inform
question

Free Writing
answer

A form of brainstorming in a structured way: Involves exploring a topic by writing about it for a certain period of time without stopping
question

Looping
answer

A variation of free writing that focuses a topic in short 5 minute stages, or loops: Can be helpful when a writer is blocked or unable to generate new ideas on a subject
question

Thesis
answer

The main idea of the essay
question

Primary sources
answer

Raw material of research; books, letters, diaries, eyewitness accounts, performances attended by the researcher – first hand accounts
question

Secondary sources
answer

Consist of oral and written accounts prepared by others; reports, summaries, critical reviews, and other sources not developed by the researcher – used for background and supporting documentation
question

First Person
answer

Is written so that the “I” of the story is a participant or observer
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A Multiple POV
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The narration is delivered from the perspective of several characters
question

Textual Knowledge
answer

Literature implies readers are taking a perspective or stance on the text
question

Modern Language Association
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Calls for noting brief references to sources in parentheses in the text of an essay, and adding an alphabetical list of sources called “Works Cited”, at the end
question

American Psychological Association
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Includes “References” and footnotes
question

Global Revisions
answer

Addresses the larger elements of writing; They usually affect paragraphs or sections, and may involve condensing or merging sections of text to improve meaning and flow
question

Coherence
answer

A smooth flow of sentences and paragraphs without gaps, shifts or bumps
question

Transitions
answer

Smooth the reader’s path between sentences and informs readers of major connections to new ideas forthcoming in the text
question

Generalizing
answer

Drawing a conclusion from an array of facts using inductive reasoning; These conclusions are a probability, not a certainty
question

Hasty Generalization
answer

Conclusion based on insufficient or unrepresentative evidence
question

Post Hoc Fallacy
answer

A common error is to assume that because on event follows another, the first is the cause of the second
question

Assumptions
answer

Claims that are taken to be true without proof
question

Syollogism
answer

Deductive reasoning that is constructed in a three-step method; 1. major premise, 2. minor premise 3. conclusion; Deductive arguments fail if either the major or minor premise is not true, or if the conclusion does not logically follow the premises
question

Cliches
answer

Sentences and phrases that have been overused to the point of triviality
question

Doublespeak
answer

Coined by George Orwell in “1984”; It applies to any evasive or deceptive language, particularly favored by politicians; Evident in advertising, journalism and in political polemics
question

Ambiguity
answer

Error or flaw; Word or phrase conveys two or more different meanings
question

Sentences can be classified in 4 ways…
answer

1. Simple Sentences 2. Compound Sentences 3. Complex Sentences 4. Compound-Complex Sentences
question

Clauses come in 2 varieties:
answer

1. Independent Clauses 2. Subordinate Clauses
question

Antecedent
answer

Usually the pronoun substitutes for the specific noun
question

Who or Whom?
answer

Who – Can only be used for subjects or subject complements; Whom – can only be used for objects
question

Articles
answer

“a”, “and”, “the”
question

Romantic Movement
answer

intellectual and spiritual passion for beauty, passions, feelings, emotions. Blake and Keats
question

Marxist Criticism
answer

-Class conflict drives the history of human civilization. -The capitalists, or bourgeoisie (those who possess and control economic capital) exploit and oppress the proletariat (the working classes) for their own economic and political benefit. Ex: grapes of wrath, room of one’s own, brothers Karamazov
question

Freudian Criticism
answer

-Humans have conflicts between drives like sex and death wish. Played out between id and super ego. Looks at recurrent thoughts, images, speech patterns, and uncovers previously unknown truths about the hows and whys of the patients predicament. -Poe, Burroughs
question

Dramatic Plot
answer

Exposition, complication, reversal, recognition, resolution
question

Agony
answer

Greek word for struggle or conflict. Used in classical Greek drama, it indicates a portion of the play where two characters engage in a heated argument or debate.
question

Types of Drama
answer

Chronicle plays (historical dramas based on English history), Mystery plays (based on the Bible), Heroic dramas (heroes of epic deeds, usually in blank verse or heroic couplets-Restoration period), No (form of traditional Japanese theater that uses music, dance, and poetry)
question

Problem Plays
answer

focus on social problems and movements (Alexander Dumas, Ibsen, Hellman, Miller- all famous for this form)
question

Poetry Types
answer

Lyric poetry (voice of poem evokes a particular feeling or attitude), epic poetry (extended narrative telling the story of a hero(s), usually taking a journey, often disguised as versions of history), dramatic poetry (a single speaker, not the poet, addresses a silent listener)
question

Poetic Devices
answer

Meter (regular recurrence of a rhythmic sound pattern), Foot (lines divided into units, accented and unaccented syllables, four syllables), Rhyme (duplication of sounds), Accent (recurring stress in a line of verse)
question

Poetic Oddities
answer

Aubades (lovers must part), Cadence (rhythmic rise and fall of a line of verse), Cantos (major sections of long poems), Couplets (pair of continuous lines that rhyme), Dithyrambs (dramatic and structurally irregular lyric poems)
question

Elegy
answer

Mournful or sorrowful poem, usually lamenting the dead
question

Aestheticism
answer

“art for art’s sake”
question

Elizabethan Literature Background
answer

During reign of Elizabeth I, reflected national pride felt during the reign of The Virgin Queen, language is highly colored, rich and ornamented. Saw the birth of the sonnet, the epic poem, and the Faerie Queen.
question

Elizabethan Literature Works
answer

Crowning Achievement: Elizabethan drama, Thomas Kyd, Christopher Marlowe, Thomas Dekker, George Chapman, Thomas Heywood. Shakespeare’s histories, comedies and tragedies displayed the genius of this dramatic period. The death of the queen followed by Shakespeare’s passing brought a close to this golden period of drama.
question

Homer
answer

lasting impact on Western Culture, greatest works: “The Iliad”, “The Odyssey” (both relate to Trojan War and derived from oral traditions), foundation of education in classical Greece and Rome.
question

Sophocles
answer

wrote powerful tragedies that were considered the highest form of art, lived and wrote in 4th century BC, considered one of the leading citizens of Athens. Major works: “Oedipus the King”, “Antigone”, and “Electra”. Wrote over 100 plays, only seven complete dramas survived. Tragic heroes value truth above all.
question

Michel de Montaigne
answer

Introduction to the essay to Western Culture. Major works: “Essays”. Counseled Parliament until 1571, then retired and wrote.
question

Miguel de Cervantes
answer

Spanish novelist, “Don Quixote”
question

Samuel Pepys
answer

“Diary” published in 1828, 17th century life
question

Types of Paragraphs
answer

Narration, Descriptive, Process, Comparing two subjects
question

Literary Devices
answer

Allusions, jargon, cliches, slang, sexist language, pretentious (attempt to sound impressive or elegant), euphemisms, doublespeak (deceptive language-politicians, advertising)
question

Figures of Speech
answer

Allegory, ambiguity
question

Psycho linguistics
answer

linguistic competence is employed in the production and comprehension of speech
question

Developmental Linguistics
answer

Physical representation of linguistic processes in the brain (Neuro- linguistics)
question

Sociolinguistics
answer

Relationship between language and the structure of society
question

Etomology
answer

Study of historical relation between the word and the earlier forms which it has developed
question

Independent Clause
answer

Full sentence pattern that does not function within another sentence pattern. Can stand alone
question

Subordinate Clause
answer

Full sentence pattern that functions within a sentence as an adj, adv, or a noun but cannot stand alone.
question

Parts of speech
answer

Nouns, pronouns, verbs, verb phrase (verb form that does not function as the verb of a clause-participial, gerund, infinitive), adjectives, articles, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, subjects, subordinate word groups, appositive phrases (function as adj-describe nouns, rename noun or pronoun), absolute phrases (modifies a whole clause or sentence, not just one word)
question

Subordinate Word groups
answer

Prepositional phrases, subordinate clauses (patterned like sentence S-V-O, function within sentences as adverbs, adj, noun), Adjective clauses, adverb clauses, noun clauses
question

Dialect Mixtures
answer

Presence in one form of speech with elements from different neighboring dialects
question

Dialect Geography
answer

Study of speech differences from one geographical area to another
question

Dialect Atlas
answer

Map showing different dialects in a different area
question

Dialect Continuum
answer

Shows a progressive shift in dialects across a territory
question

Discourse
answer

Any coherent succession of sentences spoken or written
question

Discourse Analysis
answer

An attempt by linguistics to extend the method of analysis for the description of words and sentences to the study of larger structures and the production of connected discourse.
question

Discourse Representation Theory
answer

A formal account of the meaning of discourse in which a semantic representation structure is derived cumulatively sentence by sentence by rules operating on representations of their syntax.
question

John Bunyon
answer

“The Pilgrim’s Progress”
question

Individuals who are bound together by a common language w/in context of the broader society are:
answer

a microculture (language use reflects culture and affects meaning)
question

Empathic listening is:
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(also called active listening or reflective listening) is a way of listening and responding to another person that improves mutual understanding and trust. (understand complimentary nature of listening and speaking)
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Dactyl (poetic device/technique)
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A stressed syllable followed by two unstressed ones, as in FLUT-ter-ing or BLUE-ber-ry. The following playful lines illustrate double dactyls, two dactyls per line: Higgledy, piggledy, Emily Dickinson Gibbering, jabbering.
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In a traditional epic poem, protagonist’s actions are motivated by:
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strong code of ethics (distinctive features of various genres)
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In Pride and Prejudice, Austen explores what attitude toward marriage in 19th cent. England
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Achieving financial security, rather than deepening a romantic relationship, is a woman’s primary goal
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aspects of “New Historicist’s reading”
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New historicism is a form of literary theory whose goal is to understand intellectual history through literature, and literature through its cultural context, which follows the 1950s field of history of ideas and refers to itself as a form of “cultural poetics”
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aspects of “formalist readings”
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of particular interest to the formalist critic are the elements of form – style, structure, tone, imagery, etc. – that are found within the text. a primary goal for formalist critics is to determine how such elements work together with the tex’s content to shape its effects upon readers
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lexicology
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The part of linguistics that studies words, their nature and meaning, words’ elements, relations between words including semantic relations, words groups and the whole lexicon.
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allegory
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a story, poem, or picture that can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning, typically a moral or political one
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3rd person omniscient pov would be most effective narrative approach for a writer to use in a short story for which purpose
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explain the motivations of various characters
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a type of self-assessment that would be best to reflect on a completed academic project
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portfolio
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acquisition of dialect
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-Children learn the specific variety of language (dialect) that the important people around them speak. -By the time they start kindergarten, children know most of the fundamentals of their language, so that they are able to converse easily with someone who speaks as they do (that is, in their dialect). -Understand that every child’s language or dialect is worthy of respect as a valid system for communication. It reflects the identities, values, and experiences of the child’s family and community.
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Neoclassical Lit.
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-social order was undergoing tremendous changes -“englightenment period” -natural passions aren’t necessarily good -Authors believed that reason was the primary basis of authority. -social needs more important than individual needs -In Europe and US from 1750-early 1800s
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characteristics of middle age lit.
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The literary writings are in Old English. The Norman Conquest of England in 1066 is the beginning of 200 years of the French domination in English letters.Chaucer’s “The General Prologue to The Canterbury Tales” has long been recognized as one of the greatest masterpieces of English literature, certainly the finest and most influential work of fiction from the Middle Ages. For most literary historians, English literature begins well before Chaucer’s greatest poem, but this particular work marks the start of the tradition which is still readily accessible in the original language to the diligent reader, even though Chaucer’s Middle English requires the constant help of a glossary.
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renaissance lit.
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A cultural movement which began in Italy during the 15th century and spread around Europe during the 17th century. Education was not offered for girls, except for daughters of the nobility and Puritans, and even then subjects were focused on chastity and housewifery.The period is characterized by the influence of the classics (in literature, language, and philosophy), as well as an optimistic forward-thinking approach to the potential of humans (known as Renaissance humanism. The spread of Protestantism was influential in literature. The English poet and playwright, William Shakespeare, who flourished during this period, is often called England’s national poet and the “Bard of Avon”.
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Deconstruction criticism
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-looks at what makes a text whole and what holes are in between its pieces -“what is and what’s not” -using what a tree is not to explain what it actually is. Breaking down a concept
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Post-colonialism criticism
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-specifically African, Middle Eastern, and Indian cultures -The post-colonial theorist enters these texts through a specific critical lens, or a specific way of reading a text. That critical lens, post-colonial theory or post-colonialism, asks the reader to analyze and explain the effects that colonization and imperialism, or the extension of power into other nations, have on people and nations.
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Feminism criticism
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feminist perspective. It is a political form of literature that analyzes the questions of how male and females relate to each other and the world, the repression of women and how women are portrayed in literature.
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Archetypal criticism
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focusing on recurring myths and archetypes (from the Greek archē, “beginning,” and typos, “imprint”) in the narrative, symbols, images, and character types in literary work.
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Psychoanalytic criticism
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Psychoanalytic criticism builds on Freudian theories of psychology. -The Unconscious, the Desires, and the Defenses -Id, Ego, and Superego
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Gender/Queer Theory
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Gender studies and queer theory explore issues of sexuality, power, and marginalized populations (woman as other) in literature and culture.
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Ecocriticism Theory
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-study of the relationship between literature and the physical environment -earth-centered approach
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theme
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the idea the author is trying to get across or teach the reader
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plot
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the things which happen in the story
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antagonist
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the bad guy or villain in the story
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protagonist
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the good guy in the story
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setting
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the time, place, and mood of the story
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foreshadowing
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giving hints or clues about what will happen in a story
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symbolism
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using something to represent something else (flag-country)
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Denouement
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Events which occur after the end of the central conflict
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Exposition
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introduces plot, characterization and setting
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Omniscient
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all-knowing
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Falling Action
Falling Action
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when a conflict is resolved in the plot structure of the text
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Rising Action
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events occurring after the inciting incident but before the climax
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Inciting Incident
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sets events in a story in motion
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Resolution
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Ends the central conflict
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Foot
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A metrical unit composed of stressed and unstressed syllables.
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monologue
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A long speech made by one performer or by one person in a group.
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Narrator
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Person telling the story
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Characterization
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A method an author uses to let readers know more about the characters and their personal traits.
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Interlanguage
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The term for “a unique language” that has been developed by the L2 learner who has not yet reached proficiency. Their interlanguage features some features of L1 and overgeneralized L2 speaking and writing rules. This creates a unique linguistic organization.
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Fossilization
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Uncorrected interlanguage features can become resistant to change and permanently entrenched in a learner’s speech
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Articulation Matrix
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The relationship between activities and outcomes. A set of goals and the methods used to reach them. Ex: Graduation Matrix, completing the required courses is the outcome and the lectures, homework, assignments are the activities.
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Bloom’s Taxonomy
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A hierarchical classification system (articulation matrix) that outlines 6 levels of cognitive learning. At each step, students reach a predictable level of mastery Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation
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Language
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Voice sounds and written symbols representing these sounds representing these sounds, in combinations and patterns, used to express and communicate thoughts and feelings
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Vocabulary
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All words of a language A set of words
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Grammar
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Rules of a language viewed as a mechanism for generating all sentences possible in that language Rules governing how to use words
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Pronunciation
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Way of speaking a word, especially a way that is accepted and generally understood
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Reading / To Read
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The act or activity of rendering text aloud The ability to examine and grasp the meaning of written and printed material in a vine language
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Writing / To Write
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Meaningful letters or characters that constitute readable material To form letter, words or symbols on a surface such as paper with an instrument such as a pen
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Speaking / To Speak
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Capable of speech involving talking, expressing or telling To convey thoughts, opinions, or emotions orally
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Hearing / To Hear
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The sense by which sound is perceived To be capable of perceiving sound by the ear
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Components of language
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Reading, Writing, Speaking and Hearing
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Dialect
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form of a language spoken by people according to their geographical region, social class, cultural group, or any other distinctive group Literature example- Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain, Wuthering Heights By Emily Bronte, To Kill a Mocking Bird by Harper Lee
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Dialogue
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the exact word a character speaks, put in quotation marks, the conversation in a play
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Paragraph
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a group of connected sentences covering one main topic, in works of prose
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Soliloquies or Monologues
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large sections of dialogue spoken by one actor
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Aside
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dialogue that informs the audience but is unheard by other characters
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Johannes Gutenburg
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1450 invention of the movable printing press
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blank verse
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unrhymed iambic pentameter
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Elegies Poems
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mourning poems written in three parts: lament, praise of deceased, and solace for loss
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Odes Poems
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evolved from songs to the typical poem of Romantic time period expressing strong feelings and contemplative thoughts
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Pastoral Poems
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idealize nature and country living
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Haiku
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originally a Japanese poetry form, 17 syllables, usually 5/7/5, forces one to compress ideas and images concisely
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Petrarachan sonnet
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poet Petrarch created, 8 line stanza (octave) and six-line stanza (sestet)
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English or Shakespearean Sonnet
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three quatrains (4 line stanzas) and one couplet (2 lines)
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Sir Thomas Browne
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has coined over 100 new words, instrumental in developing many vocabulary words for prose and poetry, influence on English Literature
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Metaphysical Poet
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wrote stuff that was shocking and surprising using paradox, contradictory imagery, original syntax, combinations of religious, philosophical, and artistic images
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William Blake
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Had visions- many thought him crazy, one of the earliest and foremost English Romantic poets, his work had mystical and philosophical elements, famous poems include Songs of Innocence and of Experience, The Book of Thel, The Marriage of Heaven and Hell, and Jerusalem
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William Wordsworth
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was important in establishing Romanticism, wrote “Preface to Lyrical Ballads”- Romantic literary theory and criticism, his poem known as “the poem to Coleridge”-his major work, Other poems by him “I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud”, “Ode: Intimations of Immortality”, “Westminster Bridge”, “The World is Too Much with Us”
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Samuel Taylor Coleridge
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helped launch Romanticism with Wordsworth, criticism: Biographia Literaria, coined many philosophical and literary terms, created Conversational Poetry, Best Known works “The Rime of the Ancient Mariner”, “Christabel”, “Kubla Khan” “The Nightingale” “Dejection: An Ode” “To William Wordsworth”
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George Gordon, Lord Byron
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known for long narrative poems, “Don Juan”, “Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage”, and “She Walks in Beauty”, wrote linguistic volumes on American and Armenian grammars,
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Percy Bysshe Shelley
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known for his lyric poems, famous after his death, married to Mary Shelley- known for Frankenstein, his most known poems “Ozymandias”, “Ode to the West Wind”, “To a Skylark”, “Music”, “When Soft Voices Die”, “Adonais”, “Queen Mab”/” The Daemon of the World”, ” The Cloud”, “The Masque of Anarchy”
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John Keats
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known for his 6 odes, “Ode on a Grecian Urn”, “Ode on Indolence”, “Doe on Melancholy”, “Ode to a Nightingale”, “Ode to Psyche”, “To Autumn” Known as for sonnets, “La Belle Dame Sans Merci”, “Endymion”, “O Solitude”
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William Butler Yeats
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transitional from Romanticism to Modernism, Works “The Stolen Child”, “The Wanderings of Oisin”, “The Death of Cuchulain”, “Who goes with Fergus?”. Most significant collections: The Green Helmet, Responsibilities, The Tower, and The Winding Stair.
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Novel of Manners
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fictional stories that observe, explore, and analyze the social behaviors of a specific time and place; behaviors of specific societies are shorter lived and more varied, Jane Austin
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Epistolary
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written in the form of a letter, Samuel Richardson- Pamela, Clarissa
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Pastoral Novels
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idealize country life as idyllic and Utopian akin to the Garden of Eden, Daphnis and Chloe Longus- influenced many Elizabethan romances like Lodge’s “Rosalynde”—realism made this lean toward dystopian- Hardy/ George Eliot
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Bidungsroman
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German for “Education novel”, focus on coming of age novels, including youth struggles and searches for things such as identity, spiritual understanding, or meaning in life, Johann Wolfgang von Geothe’s Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre credited with the origin.
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Roman a Clef
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French for “novel with a key”, books that require a real-life frame of reference or key for full comprehension, Examples: Geoffrey Chaucer- Canterbury Tales, George Orwell- Animal Farm,
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Realism
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a literary form with the goal of representing reality as faithfully as possible, realist focused on immediacy of time and place, specific actions of characters and consequences of those actions, some techniques include writing in vernacular (conversational language), Dostoevksy- Crime and Punishment, Henry James- Daisy Miller, Mark Twain- Huckleberry Finn
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Satire
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uses sarcasm, irony, and/or humor as social critism to lampoon human folly, Alexander Pope’s poem “Rape of the lock”, Gulliver’s Travels- Jonathan Swift
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Farce
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zany, goofy type of comedy that includes pitfalls, other forms of slapstick humor, plot contains highly improbable events, mistaken events, deceptions, and disguises, Shakespeare’s play The Comedy of Errors is an example
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Romantic Comedy
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most popular, include humor, happy ending and love, story line- two people well suited to one another are either brought together for the first time or reconciled after being separated. Example Disney Cinderella
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Tragedy
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opposite of comedy, portrays Hero’s fall in fortune depict suffering and pain to cause terror and pity in the audience downfalls be through personal action, choice, error, not by bad luck or accident
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Anagnorisis
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tragic insight or recognition, moment of realization by tragic hero when he suddenly understands how he has enmeshed himself in “web of fate”
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Hamartia
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Tragic flaw, better described as tragic error, usually results in catastrophe
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Hubris
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often means “pride”, arrogant overstepping of moral or cultural bounds-the sin of the tragic hero who over-presumes or over-aspires
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Nemesis
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represents the cosmic punishment or payback that the tragic hero ultimately receives for committing hubristic acts
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Peripateia
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plot reversal consisting of tragic hero’s pivotal action, which changes his/her status from safe to endangered
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Hegel theory of tragedy
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dynamic conflict of opposite forces or rights, circumstance where two values or two rights are fatally at odds with one another and conflict directly. Ex. Antigone- conflict between public duties and her family and religious responsibilities
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Revenge Tragedy
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protagonist suffered serious wrong such as assault or murder of family member, wrongdoer not punished. protagonist faces conflict of suffering injustice or exacting his or her own justice by seeking revenge Ex: Hamlet, Medea
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Story Vs. Discourse
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Story- characters, places, and events originating in the author’s mind Discourse- how the author arranges and sequences events, could be chronological or not
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Conflict
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a problem that needs to be solved, can be external or internal. Internal being man vs. himself, external man vs. nature, man vs. man, man vs. society
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Mood
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story’s atmosphere or feeling the reader gets from reading it, the writer uses figurative expressions, sentence structures, and choice of diction to project a mood
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Tone
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emotions and attitudes of the writer that he/she expresses in the writing, same techniques are used as mood.
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Personification
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describing things or animals as a person
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Imagery
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description using sensory terms that create mental images for the read of how people, animals or things look, sound, feel, taste and/or smell.
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caesura
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a pause mid-verse
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Villanelle
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19 line poem composed of 5 tercets and one quatrain, characteristic of repetition of two lines repeatedly throughout the poem
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Situational Irony
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what happens contrasts with what was expected
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Dramatic Irony
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narrative informs audience of more than its characters know
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Inferences
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logical conclusions that readers make based on their observations and previous knowledge
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Textual Evidence
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to evaluate reader’s predictions about literature includes specific synopses of the work, paraphrases of the work, and direct quotations of it.
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Pathos
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refers to appeals to the emotions
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Ethos
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appeals to credibility, based on academic, professional, or personal merit
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Logos
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appeals to audience through reasoning and logic to influence opinions
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Ad Hominem
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against the man, attacks someone giving the message not the message itself
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“Stacking the Deck”
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misleads by presenting only selected information that supports one position; “Four out of Five Dentists recommend”
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A Red Herring
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irrelevant information introduced to distract others from the pertinent issue
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Slippery slopes
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are arguments that one event will cause others without demonstrating any cause and effect relationship.
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Argumentum ad antiquitatem
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means an argument to tradition or antiquity; “We have always done it this way”
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Argumentum ad Hominem
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is against the person, not the person’s statements/ideas; attacking a person as an information source
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Argumentum ad ignorantiam
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presumes the truth of something based on its not being proven untrue, ignorance
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Argumentum ad logicam
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presumes something is untrue based on an invalid argument or proof
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Argumentum ad misericordiam
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appeal to pity; usually for assistance for starving children, abused animals wanting donations
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Argumentum ad nauseam
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repeating ones point over and over again until the audience is literally disgusted; repetition to replace actual logic
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Argumentum ad numerum
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appeal or argument to numbers; agreement of majority does not make something true,
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Argumentum ad verecundiam
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arguing or appealing to authority; using someone’s opinion who is not an expert on the topic,
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Circulus in demonstrado
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circular argument; saying X is true because X is true
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Complex Questions
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presumes something is true before it has been established
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Cum hoc ergo propter hoc
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“With this, therefore because of this”; because these occur together, one causes the other; although things can occur together and be unrelated
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dicto simplicitier
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“spoken simply”; a figuratively sweeping generalizations; example women are not as strong as men, this is not true since some women are stronger than men.
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Appeal to Nature
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anything natural or part of nature is good/ anything not natural is bad;
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Naturalistic Fallacy
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one draws conclusions regarding values example wrong and right, bad and good based only on factual statements;
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non sequitur
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“it does not follow”; in opening arguments avoid giving away to their opponents a counterargument they anticipate
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Petitio Principii
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when attempting to prove something, one assumes the same thing one wants to prove; when a question is asked in a conversation but is never answered
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Tu quoque
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“you too”; both sides make the same error and do not excuse either one.
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Compound Sentence
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consists of two independent clauses, joined by a coordinating conjunction or punctuation like a semicolon, a colon, or sometimes a comma
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Complex Sentence
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consists of an independent clause and a dependent clause, connected by a subordinating word, making one clause subordinate to/ dependent on the other
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Compound Words
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words that consist of two single words that are used together to give a more specific meaning so commonly or often that they have been combined to form one word; EX: Household, Storybook
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Informative/ Explantatory
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begins with basis that something is true or factual; just give information to audience
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Argumentative writing
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prove that something may or may not be true or factual, try to get audience to agree with writers position
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Journal
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a personal account of events, experiences, feelings, and thoughts; private documents not for sharing therefore grammar spelling and mechanics not a top prority; can be therapeautic
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Blog
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derived from the “web log”; writing done exclusively on the Internet
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Explicit Information
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the reader is told by the author exactly what is meant, which can include the author’s interpretation or perspective of events.
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Implicit Information
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Where the information is not directly stated but it is described and the reader infers what is happening or how someone is feeling
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parody
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form of satire that imitates another work to ridicule its topic and/or style
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paradox
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statement that is true despite appearing contradictory
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Deductive
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reasoning moves from general to specific
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Inductive
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reasoning from specific to general
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Understatement
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effects like contrast or irony by downplaying or describing something more subtly than warranted.
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Chiasmus
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parallel clauses, second reversing the order of the first, EX: Has the church failed mankind or has mankind failed the church?
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Anaphora
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repeats a word or phrase at the beginning of consecutive clause or phrase to add emphasis to an idea.
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alliteration
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repetition of the first sounds or stressed syllables
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assonance
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repetition of identical or similar vowel sounds
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onomatopoeia
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words that imitate sounds
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Onset Sounds
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sounds at the beginning of a word
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Oral Language development
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occurs in a social context. immature oral language is babbling, or not using real words
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Written language development
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occurs during instruction
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affixes
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syllables attached to beginning or end of word to make a derivative or inflectional form of a word.
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prefix
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syllable appears at beginning of word
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root word
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base of a word to which affixes can be added.
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critical comprehension
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prior knowledge and understanding written material. analysis of meaning, evaluation, validation, questioning, and reasoning
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learning approach theory
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language first learned by imitating adult speech then solidified through drills about structure of language
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cognitive approach theory
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1970, children must develop cognitive skills before acquiring language
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inductive reasoning
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using particulars to draw a general conclusion. starts with data.
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deductive reasoning
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using general facts or premises to come to a specific conclusion.
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parallelism
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subjects, objects, verbs, modifiers, phrases, and clauses can be structured in sentences to balance one with another through similar grammatical pattern.
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hyperbole
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phrase that exaggerates for effect. ex: i thought i would die!
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bathos
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attempt to evoke pity, sorrow, or nobility that goes overboard and becomes ridiculous
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malapropism
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confusing on word with another. similar sounding words
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coordinating conjunction
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join two independent clauses by placing a comma and a conjunction between them
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subordinating conjunction
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joins a subordinate cluase and an independent clause and establishes the relationship between them.
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base maps
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created from aerial and field surveys, serve as starting point for topgraphic and thematic maps
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Topographic maps
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show natural and human-made surface features of the earth. include mountain elevations, river courses, roads, lakes, towns, and county state lines
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thematic maps
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population density, wildlife distribution, hill slope stability, economic trends
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cartography
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art and science of mapmaking
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absolute location
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exact spot where coordinates meet
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China
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Developed printing and paper making technology that allowed information to be widely distributed.
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Simple Sentence
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a sentence consisting of one independent clause and no dependent clause
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Pronoun
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a word that takes the place of a noun He, She, it,
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Descriptive Essay
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author describes events and feelings by including images and details showing how things look, sound, smell, taste, or feel (5 senses)
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Speech
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human being have to try very hard to be completely non-expressive in their speech
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Narrative Writing
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writing that tells a story
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proper noun
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a noun that denotes a particular thing Days of the week, names, months, historical documents,etc..
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Transitive Verb
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has a direct object
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Intransitive verb
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have no direct object
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parts in the sentence
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The subject and predicate
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whole language approach
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Teaching reading by encouraging early use of all language skills-talking and listening, reading and writing.
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miscue analysis
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A way of acquiring insight into children’s reading strategies by studying the mistakes (miscues) they make when reading aloud.
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phonics
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teaching reading by training beginners to associate letters with their sound values
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taxonomic hierarchy
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grouping thing where they belong Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
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folktale
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a story that is usually passed down orally and becomes part of a community’s tradition
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Enjambment
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The continuation of a sentence without pause beyond the end of a line, couplet, or stanza
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Chronicle Plays
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Historical dramas based on English history
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Sappho
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Early, influential Greek poet. Lived on island of Lesbos
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Ovid
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“Metamorphoses”, “Amores”; skilled and witty Roman poet
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Malory
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“Le Morte d’Arthur”; English writer 1400’s
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Rabelais
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“Gargantuan & Pantagreul”; Renaissance writer of social satire, licentious comedy, humanist philosophy. “Rabelaisian” means larger than life with robust humor.
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de Montaigne
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“Essais”; French Renaissance writer
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Marlowe
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“Edward the Second”, “Tamburlaine the Great”, “Dr. Faustas”, “The Jew of Malta”; Elizabethan writer that influenced Shakespeare
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Spenser
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“The Faerie Queen”; Elizabethan writer
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Donne
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Metaphysical English poet
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Pepys
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Administrator of the Navy of England & member of Parliament; kept a diary that was published
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Dryden
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“Wild Gallent”, “All for Love”, “The Maiden Queen”; Restoration England, wrote many comedies
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Bunyan
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“The Pilgrim’s Progress”; English writer & Puritan preacher
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Virginia Hamilton
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Born in Yellow Springs, Ohio, in 1936, Virginia Hamilton wrote more than 40 books. Her first was Zeely (1967), and it would set the tone for much of her subsequent work, handling race not as an “issue” but simply as a part of life. Chiefly remembered for her children’s books, among her best known are The Planet of Junior Brown (1971), M.C. Higgins, the Great (1974) and The People Could Fly (1985). M.C. Higgins won Hamilton a National Book Award and a Newbery Medal, the first awarded to a black writer. She died of breast cancer in February 2002.
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Sandra Cisneros
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is a poet, short story writer, novelist, and essayist, whose work explores the lives of the working-class. Bad Boys (Mango Press 1980); two full-length poetry books, My Wicked Wicked Ways (Third Woman 1987, Random House 1992) and Loose Woman (Alfred A. Knopf 1994); a collection of stories, Woman Hollering Creek and Other Stories (Random House l991); a children’s book, Hairs/Pelitos (Alfred A. Knopf 1994); and two novels, The House on Mango Street (Vintage 1991) and Caramelo (Knopf 2002).
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Laurence Yep
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a prolific Chinese-American writer, best known for children’s books. One of Yep’s recurring topics is people who feel alone and feel they do not belong in their surroundings, which are common feelings among young readers. Many of his characters, through their journeys, are able to find who they are and where they belong. Laurence Yep’s most notable collection of works is the Golden Mountain Chronicles, documenting the fictional Young family from 1849 in China to 1995 in America.
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N. Scott Momaday
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is a Kiowa novelist, short story writer, essayist, and poet. His novel House Made of Dawn was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1969, and is considered the first major work of the Native American Renaissance. His follow-up work The Way to Rainy Mountain blended folklore with memoir. received the National Medal of Arts in 2007 for his work’s celebration and preservation of indigenous oral and art tradition.
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Analogy
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Comparison between two things. Some are similes, some are metaphors.
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Archetype
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Universally understood symbol, term, or pattern of behavior. A prototype upon which others are copied, patterned or emulated. “Romeo and Juliet are an archetype of eternal love and a star-crossed love story.”
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Consonance
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Repetition of similar constant sounds.
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Diction
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Style of speaking or writing as dependent upon choice of words. Some modern day writers use terms such as ‘thy’, ‘thee’ and ‘wherefore’ to imbue a Shakespearean mood to their work.
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Epilogue
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Afterword after the last chapter is over.
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Epithet
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Descriptive device that usually adds to a person or place’s regular name. “Alexander the Great” is an epithet refering to Alexander III of Macedon.
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Litote
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Understatement. Way of saying something unpleasant without directly using negativity. “He’s definitely not a rocket scientist” instead of “He is not smart.”
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Motif
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Element, subject, idea or concept that is constantly present through the piece. “A handsome prince falling in love with a damsel in distress.”
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Spoonerism
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Interchanging the first letters of some words to create a humorous setting.
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Dramatic Poetry
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An imagined, single speaker addresses a silent listener, usually not the reader
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Closed Couplet
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When the pair of lines in a couplet form a sentence
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Sonnet
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Poem of 14 lines with a set rhyme scheme that varies, brought to England by Sir Thomas Wyatt and Henry Howard English (or Shakespearean), Italian, and Petrarchan sonnet types
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Ballad
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Form of poetry in a narrative song, usually sung popular in 14th and 15th century John Keats’s “La Belle Dame sans Merci,” Thomas Hardy’s “During Wind and Rain,” and Edgar Allan Poe’s “Annabel Lee”
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Biographical, deconstructionist, feminist, formalist, historical, mythological, psychological, reader-response, sociological
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Types of criticism
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Formalist/New Criticism
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Approach that analyzes the inherent features of a text. Focus is not on author, historical context, or our own rxns, but on the text itself. Focus on things like grammar, symbols, images…
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Reader-Response
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Approach that literature is a transaction between the physical text and the readers mind. Readers might have different interpretations.
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Ben Jonson
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Major poet and dramatist of 17th century “The Alchemist,” “Volpone,” and “Every Man in his Humor”
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John Dryden
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Great English poet, playwright, literary critic, and satirist “The Conquest of Granada” (heroic play), “Marriage A-la-mode,” “Don Sebastian,” “All for Love,” (comedy’s and tragedys), and “Absalom and Achiyophel” (satire poem)
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Jeb-Baptiste Poquelin (Moliere)
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Greatest playwright of his time “The School for Wives” (New type of comedy, 1622), “La Tartuffe,” and “The Misanthrope”
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John Donne
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English metaphysical poet, pomes have strong sensual style “To Catch a Falling Star,” “The Flea,” and “The Good Morrow”
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Francis Bacon
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English Renaissance essayist and philosopher, wrote on science and scientific inquiry, promoted scientific method, 1600’s “New Atlantis,” and “Instaruratio Magna”
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Euripides
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Master at creating complex characters with Rich emotional lives; many of place are about the foolishness of war “Medea,” “Hippolytus,” and “Electra”
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Aristophanes
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Great playwright, greatest comedic right of his time; plays were noted for brilliant dialogue, poetic lyrics, sharp parodies “The Clouds,” “The Wasps,” “The Frogs,” “The Birds,” and “Lysistrata”
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Virgil
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One of the greatest Roman poets “The Aeneid” (1 of the most influential in early classical literature, tells trials and triumphs of Homer),”Eclogues,” “Georgics”
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Dante Alighieri
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Greatest of Italian poets, major figure in the Renaissance’s revolution of arts and letters, critique of famous figures (Homer, Julius Caeser) “The Divine Comedy” (religious themes, imagery)
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Sir Thomas Malory
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Famous characters in his stories: King Arthur, Sir Lancelot, Sir Gawain, Queen Guinevere “Le Morte de Arthur”
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Francois Rabelais
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Works were a mix between social satire, comedy, and humanist philosophy; works banned from Catholic Church “Gargantuan and Pantagreul”
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Christopher Marlowe
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English author, most important Elizabethan dramatist prior to Shakespeare, passionate protagonists, strength of verse, brilliant plotting “Edward II”, “Dr. Faustas,” “Tamburlaine the Great,” and ” The Jew of Malta”
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Edmund Spenser
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Great Elizabethan poet and playwright “The Faerie Queen” and “The Shepherdess Calendar”
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T.S. Elliot
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Poet, won 1948 Nobel Prize in literature; writing is abstract but has innovative style, invented symbolism in Modern Era “The Waste Land,” “The Four Quartets,” “The Love Song of J. Alfred Profrock,” and “The Hollow Men”
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Prescriptive grammar
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Prescribes rules governing what people should/shouldn’t say
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Descriptive grammar
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Describes what is normal in language use; rules that are normal and intuitive Eg. Children who say “gooses” or “mans” know it needs to be plural but don’t know how to do it correctly
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Jane Austen
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Comedic and witty novels of love, was not highly recognized until after her death Pride and Prejudice” (❤️, reputation, class), “Sense and Sensibility,” and “Emma”
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Emily Brontë
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Victorian poet and writer, collab’ed on book of poetry with her sisters. Only 1 book: “Wuthering Heights” (characters lead a difficult life and in the end are rewarded for their hard work) (diff from other Vic novels)
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Charlotte Brontë
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Abandoned poetry for novel writing, collab’ed on book of poetry with her sisters critiqued social class and gender norms “Jane Eyre” (critique of Victorian assumptions about gender and social class), “Shirley”
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Neoclassicism
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Vocab and grammar was regularized, simplicity, writers portrayed man as inherently flawed Parody, satire, essays, fables… John Dryden, Jane Austen, Ben Jonson, John Milton, Voltaire
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Romanticism
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Power of the imagination, love of/reverence for nature, belief in the individual Jane Austen, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Emily Dickinson, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Edge Allan Poe
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Elizabeth Barrett Browning
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1 of most famous poets in 19th century, passionate about human rights (opposed slavery), wrote about social and political themes in latter work “Sonnets” (love lyrics… “How Do I Love Thee?”), “Aurora Leigh and “The Cry of the Children”
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comprehension level
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paraphrasing is what level of Blooms?
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2 years
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earliest age at which ASD an be identified
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behavioral therory
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motivation states that behaviors that have been reinforced are likely to be repeated
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assimilation
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according to Piaget, what is the process by which new information is added to an individual’s existing schema, or existing knowledge structure about a subject?
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inquiry instruction
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starts with questions, problems or scenarios
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poor plannng
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example of an “internal time stealer”
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aphasia
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example of a language disorder
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explain a concept
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example of an open goal
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formative evaluation
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ongoing evaluation that is used to guide instruction
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1. use of technology 2. the instructional environment
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2 very important factors for teaching students with blindness/low vision
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face validity
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what determines the judgment of the teacher evaluation on an assessment
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JAWS
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screen reader that helps students with vision disabilities?
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Vocational Educational Act
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1963
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functional behavior assessment
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an assessment that is used to help identify skills for instruction for children who have severe behavior issues
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Retinitis Pigmentosa
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an inherited disorder that is a progressive loss of vision
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discussion
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how do teachers who utilize choice theory manage behavior?
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factual
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type of learning that deals with forming basic associations
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autism
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Alpern-Boll scales is useful for assessing what?
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Prader-Willi Syndrome
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chronic feeling of hunger that can lead to extreme overeating and obesity
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1. confronting 2. adjusting 3. adapting
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3 stages of acclimatization that parents of LD children experience
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problem-based learning
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promotes collaboration of students to solve problems and reflect upon experiences
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postnatal
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Head injuries, toxic-metabolic disorders, and degenerative disorders are all examples of what kind of a cause of mental retardation?
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S – Structure C – Clarity R – Redundancy E- Enthusiasm A – Appropriate Rate M – Maximized Engagement
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What does SCREAM stand for?
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EIP Early Intervention Programs
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What program is designed for infants and children younger than school age?
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Fragile X syndrome
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what is the most common form of intellectual disability
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breaking words into phonemes
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A student who is dyslexic has trouble doing what?
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40-60
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What is a standard T-score?
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1990
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In what year were children with autism covered under IDEA?
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establish boundaries
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What is the first step for promoting proper behavior of students in the classroom?
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create a written notice
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if a school wants to end a child’s special education, what should they use to notify the parents?
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Differientiated Learning
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creating lesson plans that concentrate on different learning modalities is an example of what?
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social interaction
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According to Vygotsky, the degree of success students attain in the zone of proximal development is most dependent upon which of the following?
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Responsive Classroom approach
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teaching them social and emotional skills as part of their academic learning through social interaction. This approach is known as__________.
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monitor progress
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The best reason for collecting data is to?
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percentile
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What is a student’s score that is relative to the norm sample?
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receptive language
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the ability to understand or comprehend language heard or read
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center for Special Education Finance
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With regard to special education, what does CSEF stand for?
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criterion referenced- test
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What is an example of a formal assessment?
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Neurological Impress Method
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method of teaching reading that was developed to help students with severe disabilities learn to read and involves joint oral reading by the student and the teacher?
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congenital or adventitious
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Hearing impairments may be _____?
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10
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How many adaptive skills did the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR) propose?
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least intrusive prompts
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teachers gradually decrease the amount of assistance on each task
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classroom management
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What must be established before teachers can effectively instruct their students?
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pre-referral
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A parent or educator who believes a student needs special education will implement?
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Phonology
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Patterns of sound in languages. Like how spanish has more sounds than english
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Connotation
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The secondary or unofficial meaning of a word.
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Denotation
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The literal meaning of a word
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Misplaced modifier
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Modifiers that are unclear because they are too far away from the word modified
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Morphemes
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smallest units of meaning in a language un- -ing, in, s, ly
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modifier
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a word, phrase, or clause that qualifies or describes another word, phrase, or clause
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Dangling modifier
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a word or phrase that modifies a word not clearly stated in the sentence
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Orthography
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Spelling
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Webber 1997, DOK
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Level 1 is recall. Level 2 is Skill/Concept.Level 3 is strategic reasoning.Level 4 is extended reasoning.
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homophones
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Blew/Blue homo=same
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Semantics
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The study of a word or symbol meaning.
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syllabication
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forming or dividing words into syllables
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Phonetics
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The study of speech sounds
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Pragmatics
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Appropriate use of language. The social or cultural restraints placed on the use of language, along with differences in pronunciation
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Grapheme
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a letter or combination of letters that represents a phoneme LETTER THAT REPRESENT A PHONEME. B/A/Y/ 3 GRAPHEMES: SOUND OF B AND A AND Y.
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Quantitative factors/dimensions:
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Matching the text to reader and task. -Word length or frequency, sentence length, and text cohesion.
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Syntatic System
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structures that govern how words are combined in sentences.
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Morphology
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It analyzes the structure of words and parts of words, such as stems, root words, prefixes, and suffixes.
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Analogical reasoning
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thinking that relies on analogy and evidence to support a conclusion
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Allusion
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figure of speech that refers to a story, event, person, or object to make a comparison in the readers mind
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Phonics analysis
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process of using the relationships between spelling and pronunciation at the letter, syllable, and word levels to figure out unfamiliar words.
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Chomsky
answer

Learning a language is not something children actively do but rather it is a natural process occurring universally as children develop We are all born with a Language Acquisition Device (LAD) in our brains, facilitating language development Children need proper nutrition and environmental stimulation in order to nurture the natural language development enabled by the LAD
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Albert Bandura’s Social Learning Theory
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Building a bridge between behaviorist theories and cognitive theories. Explains human behavior through metal interactions among environmental, behavioral, and cognitive factors. Bandura believed that the environment produces changes in behavior and behavior produces changes in the environment. (Interactions are a 2 way street) he called this, Reciprocal Determinism
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Constructivist theory
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understands learning as a process in which learners actively build, or construct new concepts and ideas upon their foundations of existing knowledge. Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky and Jerome Bruner have strongly influence socially-oriented theories of learning, have strongly influence social constructivism.
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Phonemic awareness
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understanding that words are made up of separate sounds
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Word-study
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Word-study follows phonics. It is the knowledge of word parts, such as prefixes and suffixes, which aids students as they read and write words.
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Linking Verbs
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verbs that links the subject with the words that describe the subject (Mary IS an excellent teacher)
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Participle Phrase Fragment
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fragment beginning with a word ending in “ing” or “ed” or an irregular past participle (suckED down the vibe with a hearty slurp)
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Prose
answer

a form of language that has no formal metric structure, normal everyday speech, not rhythmic
question

Secondary Research
answer

a source created later by someone who did not experience it first hand or participate
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Verb Suffix
answer

a suffix added to a word to form a verb (soft to softEN)
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Noun Suffix
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a suffix added to a noun to explain the act of, state of, quality of or to highlight the do-er (arrive to arrivAL)
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Short Story
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a story that can be read in one sitting and has the same elements as a narrative (pov, characters, plot)
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Viewing Skills
answer

ability to interpret and make sense of visual images
question

avoid colloquialisms, avoid abbreviated and slang terms, stop to clarify and repeat spoken english language, visual aids
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Support ESL listening skills by:
question

Stages of Writing
answer

drawing pictures, scribbling, writing name, words with beginning and ending sounds, phonetic spelling
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Comma Splice
answer

a comma incorrectly used to join two independent clauses without a conjunction
question

Imperative Sentence
answer

a sentence that gives a direction or command
question

Infinitive Phrase Fragments
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a phrase beginning with an infinitive (to + simple format of verb, to smash a spider)
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Run on
answer

a sentence that tries to combine two independent clauses, but lacks the conjunction or punctuation needed
question

Top down processing
answer

use of prior knowledge to make sense of the message
question

Relative Clause Fragment
answer

a clause beginning with a who, whose, which, or that
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Helping Verbs
answer

a word used when one verb can’t be used alone because of issue with tense
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Bottom Up Processing
answer

input is received first then sense of it is made (eyes, brain, perception)
question

Dependent Clause
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a clause that has a subject and a verb but cannot stand alone
question

Prepositional phrases
answer

a word that connects a noun/pronoun to the rest of the sentence (she swam ACROSS THE lake)
question

ability to read and write; ability too identify, understand, interpret, create, communicate, compute, and use printed and written materials associated with varying contexts
answer

Abilities involved in literacy
question

awareness, planning, self monitoring, and reflection
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Components of Metacognition
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Adjective suffix
answer

include suffixes such as “ful,” which means full of (careFUL)
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Poetry
answer

manipulation of language with respect to meaning, meter, sound, and rhythm
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Third Person
answer

POV that knows everything, characters referred to as he/she/they
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Tercet
answer

stanza of 3 lines
question

Style
answer

manner in which a writer uses language in prose or poetry
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Couplet
answer

stanza of 2 lines
question

Rime
answer

what comes after onset (at in cat)
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Free Verse
answer

lacks regular pattern of poetic feet, but more controlled rhyme than prose in terms of pace and pauses
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Correlative Conjunctions
answer

paired theme used to link clauses (either/or, neither/nor, if/then)
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Flat Character
answer

character that displays only a few personality traits and are based on stereotypes (ex: bigoted redneck)
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Emergent Literacy
answer

Important language development that occurs even before a child can read or write words
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Linguistic Awareness
answer

The ability to understand sound structures within language
question

Factors that affect Language Development
answer

Developmental and medical issues, Health of home environment, Socioeconomic status, Socialization and exposure to a variety of texts, people and experiences that provide new vocabulary
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Listening Skills
answer

Glean information and produce an appropriate response
question

Phonological Awareness
answer

Broad skill that involves the understanding that language is made up of sound units (words, syllables, onsets, rhymes) and the ability to manipulate those units
question

Phonemes
answer

The smallest sound units within words
question

Rhyming
answer

Having an ending sound that corresponds with another (cat, hat)
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Segmenting
answer

The ability to break a word up into individual component sounds
question

Blending
answer

Combining sounds to form words
question

Phoneme Isolation
answer

Recognizing separate phonemes in words
question

Phoneme Segmentation
answer

Separating a word into all of its phonemes
question

Phoneme Identification
answer

Finding common phonemes among different words
question

Phoneme Blending
answer

Giving sequence of phonemes that create a word
question

Phoneme Addition
answer

Making a new word by adding a phoneme to an existing word
question

Phoneme Deletion
answer

Removing a phoneme from a word to make a new word
question

Phoneme Substitution
answer

Replacing a phoneme with another to form a new word
question

Concept of Print
answer

Awareness that written letters have sounds and that they form words
question

Alphabetic Principle
answer

Understanding that words are made up of letters that have different sounds
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Letter-Sound Correspondence
answer

The knowledge of the sounds that are associated with each letter of the alphabet
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Meter
answer

A reoccuring pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in language create a rythm when spoken. When the patrern is regular.
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Stanza
answer

Is a group of lines. Relationship among the lines.
question

Literacy
answer

Ability tonidentify, understand, interpret, create, communicate, compute, and use printed and written materials associated with varying contexts.
question

Teaching phonolgoical awareness
answer

Include language play and exposure to a variety of sounds and context of sounds.
question

Alphebetical principle
answer

Refers to the use of letters and combinations of letters to represent speech sounds.
question

Decoding
answer

Method used to make sense of printed words and figure out how to correctly pronounce them.
question

Fluency
answer

Goal of literacy development.. Ability to read accurately and quickly.
question

Suffix
answer

Syllable that appears after a word that, in combinationwith the root or base word, creates a specific m meaning. -noun suffix: “ment” (argue) -verb suffix: “en” aded to soften; means it was made soft. -adjective suffix: “ful” which means full of… Careful.
question

Synonyms
answer

Word that means the same.
question

Antonyms
answer

Word that is the opposite.
question

Literal comprehension
answer

Skills the reader uses to deal with the actual words in the text. Skills suh as identifying the topic sentence or main idea.
question

Metacognition
answer

Thinking about thinking. Students taking control of their own learning process, self monitoring.
question

Simile
answer

Comparison between teo unlike things using “like” or “as.”
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Metaphor
answer

Is a dirwct comparison between teo unlike things without the use of “like” or “as.”
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Synecdoche
answer

Thenuse of anpart of something to signify the whole. Ex. “Boots on the ground” could describe soldiers on a field.
question

Metonymy
answer

Is the use of one term that is closely associated with another to mean the other. Ex. “Crown” representing monarchy.
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Learning approach
answer

This is the theory assumes that language is first learned by imitsting the speech of adults.
question

Linguistic approach
answer

By Noam Chomsky in 1950s, this theory proposes that the ability to use a language is innate (born able to)
question

Cognitive approach
answer

Based on the work of Piaget and developes in 1970. Theory that children must develop cognitive skills before they acquire language.
question

Sociocognitive approach
answer

Language development is complex interaction of linguistic, social, and cognitive influences.
question

Fable
answer

Animals, plants, and forces of nature act like humans. Fable also teach a moral lesson.
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Tall tale
answer

Exaggerates human abilities.
question

Cause
answer

Reason for action or event
question

Effect
answer

Results of a cause.
question

Round characters
answer

Have complex personalities,just like real people.
question

Dynamic characters
answer

Characters that change and grow during course of the narrative.
question

Adjective
answer

Word that modifies or describes a noun. Ex.”Green apple” or “every computer”
question

Conjunctions
answer

Used to link words… Ex. And,or,for,but
question

Adverb
answer

Word that modifies a verb. Ex. You talked “loudly”
question

Gerund
answer

Verb used as announ most end in ing. Ex. “Walking”is good exercise.
question

Infinitive
answer

This is a verbal form comprised of the word “to” followed by the root form of a verb.
question

Preposition
answer

Links a noun or pronoun to other parts of a sentence. Ex. By, for, in, out, through, to.
question

Subject verb agreement
answer

Verb changes from depending on whether the subject is singular or plural. Ex. “Ido”, “he does”, and “the ball is”
question

Syntax
answer

Rules related to how to properly structure sentences and phrases.
question

Illistrstive essays
answer

The write starts with a topic sentence that is followed by one or more examples that clearly relate to and support the topic.
question

Narrative essays
answer

Tells a story.
question

Process essays
answer

“How to” and explanation paper.
question

Comparison and contrast essay
answer

Examines similarities and differences between two things.
question

Classification paper
answer

Sorts information.
question

Cause and effect essay
answer

Discusses the causes or reasons for an event or the effects of a cause.
question

Persuasive essay
answer

Writer tries to convienxe the ausdience.
question

Euphemism
answer

This is a “cover up” word that avoids the explicit meaning of an offensive or unpleasant term by substituting a vaguer image. “Expired” instead of “dead”
question

Climax
answer

Buildig dramatic high point.
question

Oxymoron
answer

Two terms that are used togeher to for contradictory effect.
question

Irony
answer

Differnece between what is and what ought to be. It is ironic that the turtle beat the hare.
question

Heirarchical order
answer

List of material from mots tonleast important or least to most important.

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