z-Test 2 Protein Flashcard

?-1 Band
Antitrypsin (AAT)
Acid glycoprotein (AAG)
Lipoprotein A (Apolipoprotein A)
Fetoprotein (AFP)
?-2 Band
Haptoglobin (HAP)
Ceruloplasmin (CER)
Macroglobulin (AMG)
?-1 Band
Transferrin (TRF)
Hemopexin (HPX)
Lipoprotein B (Apolipoprotein B)
C4
?-2 Band
Fibrinogen
C3
Microglobulin
?- Band
Immunoglobulins
C-reactive protein (CRP)
?-1 Band
Antitrypsin:
Makes up 90% of the alpha band
Function: neutralizes lysosomal elastases during phagocytosis
Uses: evaluates lung and liver disease
Acid glycoprotein:
Has a large portion of carbohydrates
Uses: Tumor marker
Lipoprotein A:
Fat carrier
Function: guides fat to the liver
Uses: Cholesterol measurement
AFP:
See in young children
If seen in adults it indicates hepatocellular carcinoma
?-2 Band
Haptoglobin:
Hemoglobin binding protein
Malaria, Transfusion reactions, and hemolytic disorders causes increased levels
Nephrotic syndrome and burns causes decreased levels
Ceruloplasmin:
Protein containing 6-7 copper atoms
Function: acts as ferro oxidase and prevents cancer
Macroglobulin:
Related to kidney disease and renal failure
?- Band
Transferrin
Carries iron from peripheral blood to bone marrow
Hemopexin
Heme-binding protein
Lipoprotein B
Fat binding protein
C4
Complement 4: present in an immune reaction
?-2 Band
Fibrinogen
Involved in blood clotting
C3
Present in an immune reaction
Microglobulin
Present in renal disease
?- band
IgG: initiates secondary immune response
IgA: found near mucosal surfaces
IgM: initiates primary immune response
IgE: increased during allergic and parasitic infections
IgD: used as a back up for initiating ag:ab response
CRP
Indicator of inflammation and a myocardial infarction
It can bind to the cell wall of streptococcus and cause a secondary immune repsonse
Albumin
Function
Controls oncotic pressure (distribution of water)
Transport protein

Clinical Significance
Hypoalbuminemia
Malabsorption
Malnutrition
Reabsorption
Hyperalbuminemia
Liver cancer
dehydration

Aminoaciduria
Normally: Glycine, alanine, serine, glutamine Heavy Meat Eaters: also Histidine Late Pregnancy: Phenylalanine, Lysine, Histidine, Tyrosine Newborns: Marked a.auria (low threshold or immature lever) then become normal
Abnormal a.auria
1) Overflow a.auria: Excessive a.aemia
2) Renal a.auria: mal-reabsorption
3) no-threshold a.auria: No reabsorption
HyperPhenylalaninemia
Phenylalanine to —–?Tyrosine by Phenylalanine Hydroxylase (PH).
PH deficiency
Absent: Classic PKU: (Phenylketoneuria) Partially absent: Variant PKU

Phenylalanine—? Phenyl puruvic acid–?acetic acid derivatives (Ketone)

Maple-Syrup Urine Disorder
Massive excretion of ?-keto acids
Leucine
Isoleucine
Valine
Urine smells like maple syrup

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