z-Test 1 Slides

Osmolality
Moles of solute/kg solvent
Flame emission Spectroscopy
lithium=red, sodium=yellow, potassium = violet, magnesium =blue.
Red and Gold top tubes
Serum tube
1-3 minutes blood will clot
After 3 minutes centrifuge (you will only see two layers)
Collect top layer: serum which contains everything except coagulation factors
Lavendar and Pink top tubes
plasma tube
Contains ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid
EDTA binds to calcium
Green top tube
plasma tube
Contains Heparin (anticoagulant)
Blue top tube
plasma tube
Contains sodium citrate (anticoagulant)
Labs in a Clinical Lab
Chem, Hematology, Urine Microscopy, Serology, Microbiology.
Minerals Test
Mg++, Ca++, Uric Acid
Electrolytes Test
K+, Na+, CO2, Cl-
Components of Clinical Chemistry
Specimens, Reagents, instrumentation.
Wet vs. Dry Reagents
Wet kits: shorter shelf life, they have specific storage conditions
Dry kits: longer shelf life, come with a diluent
Lab grade Water
free from ions, particles, microorganisms, etc.
Preparing Solutions
C1V1 = C2V2
Dilution factor

volume added/total volume, then take the inverse

 

Example:      1mL serum           = 1 = Dilution Factor of 2

           1 mL serum + 1 mL water  2

Absorbance Spectrophotometry
A spectrophotometer can be used to distinguish compounds by analyzing the pattern of wavelengths absorbed by a given sample
Beers law
%Transmittance: amount of light transmitted through the chemical
A: absorbance – amount of light absorbed by the chemical
A = ebc
e: absorbance coefficent factor
b: width of the light path
c: concentration of the solution
Therefore: A = -log T or A = 1/ log T
Standard Curves
Helps to correlate known concentrations to unknown concentrations
How do you make a standard curve?
Do a serial dilution
Add reagent to dilutions, incubate, then take the absorbances and graph them
Flame Photometry (emission spectrophotometry)
Different ions emit different colored light when excited
Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry
Inverse of flame photometry
No excitation/ionization
Causes the atoms to be in a ground state
Measuring the light absorbed by the atoms
Fluorometry
Measuring fluorescent light
Nephelometry
Amount of scattered light
Measuring the collision of molecules, how many molecules are present
Not measuring concentration
Kidneys
Turbidity
Measuring how much light was blocked
Usually used in determining bacterial growth
Osmometry
Osmolarity: measure of solute concentration, # of osmoles per solution
Used for urine and blood testing
Urine osmolality vs plasma osmolality
Please add more notes on this topic
Refractometer
Instrument that helps determine the concentration of a solution
Electrophoresis
Separation of molecules according to molecular weight and net charge with a buffering system
Tertiary structures of proteins are used
Three types of gels
Polyacrylamide
Starch
Agarose
Mass Spectrophotometer
Measures the compostition of proteins
Potentiometry
Measurement of electromotive potential
Example: ISE (ion selective electrode)
pH meter: selective for Hydrogen ions
Glucose meters are based on this technology
Radioimmunoassay (RIA)
Competitive binding assay
You administer a radioactive labeled agent to a patient then evaluate how much you see in blood or urine
Serum vs. Plasma
Plasma-coagulation factors
Flame Emission Spec Colors
NaY LiaRs KV MgB (Na=Yellow, Li=Red, K=Violet , Mg=Blue)

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