World History Industrial Revolution Study Guide 

Karl Marx
FoundingfatherofCommunism.Co-authoredtheCommunist Manifesto.
Adam Smith
Founding father of Capitalism. Authored Wealth of Nations.
Richard Arkwright
Inventor of the Water Frame. A machine that used the power
of rivers to run machinery. Leads to the development of the Factory System of
mass production.
Henry Bessemer
Creator of a cheap method to make steel, a material stronger
than iron.
Frederich Engels
Co-Author of the Communist Manifesto with Karl Marx.
Water Frame
Power source for machines in factories. Rivers turned a wheel propelling machinery.
James Watt
CreatoroftheSteamEngine
Factory System
Goods mass produced in large buildings containing machinery called Factories
Urbanization
Process of population increase in city centers as people move into cities from the neighboring rural areas in search of jobs/housing
Industrialization
The process of Industry developing and mass-production taking the place of in-home “cottage industry.”
Laissez-Faire
“Hands off.” The government should have no influence in the economy of a nation.
Seed Drill
Tool that mechanically dug hole and planted seed making the sowing of crops easier and faster.
Free market
Capitalist economies. Private citizens own the factors of production in business.
Enclosure Acts
British Parliament approves the “enclosure” or fencing in of public lands on the outskirts of villages. This land was often used by members of those communities to grow extra crops for food and to sell for income to support
their families. These acts drastically limited families’ incomes and food forcingthem to move to cities for work.
Tenements
Cheap housing built in cities to accommodate the large number of
people rapidly moving into these cities for jobs. These were not meant to be lived in for extended periods of time and were not safe, sanitary, or convenient places to live.
Factors of Production
Land, Labor, Capital, Entrepreneurship
Horse-Drawn Cultivator
Horse-drawn tool that dug rows for crops faster.
Law of Supply and Demand
Supply and Demand in capitalism work together to set prices. If SUPPLY is HIGH and DEMAND is LOW prices DROP. If Supply is Low and DEMAND is HIGH prices RISE.
Capitalists
People with the factors of production to start a business. They acted
in their own financial best interest to make a profit.
Cottage Industry
System of production where people produced and sold goods from their homes.
Communist Manifesto
Co-Authored by Engels and Marx. This book is the basis of Communism.
Agricultural Revolution
Period in England that saw new farming techniques as well as new processes in breeding livestock. This increased food production which also increased population.
Law of Self-Interest
In capitalist economies, people use the factors of production that they own in a way that will best make them a profit.
industry was the first industry to industrialize?
Textile
Law of Competition
In capitalist economies, competition brings more variety, better quality, better prices, and more choice of products in a market for the consumer.
Class Struggle
Karl Marx felt that there was a struggle between the HAVES and HAVE NOTS of an economy. Rich v. Poor.
What impact did the Railroad have on industrialization?
“Positive Feedback Loop” – Railroads needed coal, iron, steel, people and coal, iron, steel, people needed the railroad for transportation. It also connected areas for faster travel than before.
What advantages did this country possess that helped it industrialize?
Rivers, access to the ocean, and an abundance of people (these provide a market and a workforce), natural resources, and money (economies in England funded business and banks gave people a safe place for their money)
Wealth of Nations
Written by Adam Smith. This book is the basis of CAPITALISM.
What was the main occupation in this country before the Industrial Revolution?
Agriculture
In which country did the Industrial Revolution begin?
England
Why did factory owners use women and children as labor in their factories?
Owners paid women and children significantly less than men. This practice would increase the profit margins for factory owners.
Describe the abuses by factory owners during industrialization.
a. Factory owners exploited women and children as well as immigrants to
pay them low wages (often less than 1⁄2 of what they would have to pay a man). Time off was not given, and workers labored 6 days a week for long hours and little pay. Owners didn’t invest in safety in their factories and treated laborers as disposable.
Describe factory work. (Include wages, working conditions, and the type of work)
a. Factory work was not skilled. Workers (often women and children since
they could be paid a lower wage) were forced to work long hours in poor conditions for little pay. Jobs ranged from domestic maids for women to working around heavy machinery for men.
Why did so many people begin to move from the country side into the cities?
a.TheEnclosureActslimitedtheincomepossiblefromfarmingand agriculture which is what a majority of people depended on for their livelihood.
Describe where you see NEGATIVE influences of Capitalism in the Industrial Revolution.
a. Abuses by capitalist factory workers are a negative influence. People acting upon their on self-interests become greedy and selfish with their wants and ideas as well as their treatment of others.
Describe some reforms that were passed during Industrialization.
Laws limiting how long people could work, protecting the rights of women
and children.
What are “reforms”?
Reforms were laws passed to protect workers and give those in factories rights to how long they could work and the type of work they could do as well as how much they could make.
Name and describe the 3 social classes that emerge in England during the
Industrial Revolution
a. Rich Capitalists – Factory Owners, Middle Class – Shopkeepers,
managers, Poor Workers – Factory Owners/Tenement dwellers
How did Karl Marx feel about workers, the economy, and social classes?
a. Marx felt government should control the economy and that there were 2 social classes: Haves and Have Nots.
What are labor unions, why were they formed, and what impact did they have on
industrialization?
a. Unions were formed to protect workers. Workers would unite to request
certain rights and when the requests weren’t met, they would strike, or halt
their work.
What economic system would poor people most likely be fond of? Why?
a. Communism-Governmentensuresequalitythroughoutsociety.
Communism v. Capitalism: Answer the questions for EACH SYSTEM
Who controls the factors of production?
a. Capitalism-PrivateCitizens
b. Communism-Government
Who controls the factors of production? a. Capitalism-PrivateCitizens
a. Capitalism – Government has NO HAND in the economy
b. Communism – Government has HEAVY control of the economy.
How do Marx/Smith view private property and ownership?
a. Capitalism – Private property/ownership is KEY. Free Market is based on
private citizens’ ownership of the factors of production.
b. Communism – No private property or ownership. Elimination of private
property and ownership eliminates greed and crime.