World History Enlightenment Study Guide

Louis XIV
Louis XIV (14th) was one of France’s greatest and longest ruling kings (ruled 67 years) at the height of French power in 2nd half of the 1600’s. It was he who was called the ‘Sun King’ around which ‘the world revolved’. He used France’s wealth, power, military in constant wars, that although bringing ‘glory’ bankrupt the country and crushed the commoners.

Absolutism
-Period of time in Europe when monarchs got stronger
-Caused by Reformation and Age Of Exploration
-The explorations brought in a lot of money for these monarchs

Enlightened Monarchs
Tried to govern by enlightened principles but didnt want to fully give up their power.

laissez-faire
economy where the government does not intervene

Montesquieu
Separation of powers

Voltaire
Religious Tolerance

Diderot
-Wrote “Classified Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Trades”
-Supported religious tolerance but attacked religious superstition

Smith
-Wrote “The Wealth Of Nations”
-Laissez-faire believer

Cesare Beccaria
-Challenged the “eye for an eye rule”.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau
-Do what is right for the general public supporter
-Wrote “The Social Contract”
-Relationship between government and its citizens

Divines Rights Theory
“Ruler is chosen by god”

Locke
1.) Democracy
2.) All people are born with certain
inalienable rights. They are life, liberty,
and the the right to own property.
3.) Believed that people were by
nature good and that they could learn
from their experiences.
4.) Yes, people could be trusted to
govern themselves. Locke believed
that if provided with the right
information would make good
decisions.
5.) The purpose of the government is
to protect individual liberties and rights.
6.) The people had the right to revolt
against an abusive government.

Hobbes
1.) Absolute Monarch
2.) People are born with rights that they
relinquish to the monarch in return for
protection. This is known as social contract.
3.) Believed that people were wicked,
selfish, and cruel and would act on behalf of
their best interests. “Every man for every
man”.
4.) No, people could be trusted to govern
themselves and an absolute monarch
would demand obedience in to maintain
order.
5.) The purpose of the government was to
keep law and order.
6.) Because people had no say in their
government, they could do nothing if the
monarch were abusive.

Edict of Nantes
a law, promulgated by Henry IV in 1598, granting considerable religious and civil liberty to the Huguenots: revoked by Louis XIV in 1685.

St.Petersburg
Founded by Peter the Great and was capital of Russia for almost 200 years

Enlightenment
a European intellectual movement of the late 17th and 18th centuries emphasizing reason and individualism rather than tradition

Spanish Armada
Fleet of ships meant to defeat England. The English ships destroyed the Spanish armada and it bankrupt Spain leaving them with almost no power.

Fredrick the Great
-Enlarged Prussian Army
-Abolished torture, granted some freedom of speech, improved religious tolerance.
-Strived to expand Prussia

Cromwell
Leader of Roundheads and Reformed Parliament and imposed a written constitution

Maria Theresa
-Not quite open to enlightenment
-Didn’t want slaves/ serfdom abolished but wanted to improve it

Catherine the Great
-Was the next best ruler after Peter the Great died and there was a long line of bad rulers until her.
-Never completed the reform in fear of losing her nobility

Peter the Great
– The port city of St. Petersburg was built under his rule as a “window to the west” in order to increase trade with countries like France and England
-He also expanded the borders of Russia considerably
– He incorporated the ‘Beard Tax’ in Russia because he felt that having one made one look less intelligent
-One of Russia’s best rulers in history

Versailles
Louis XIV palace. AKA The Sun King. Basically bankrupt him and France.

Glorious Revolution and the outcome.
-No one was killed!
-the events of 1688-89 in England that resulted in the ousting of James II and the establishment of William III and Mary II as joint monarchs Also called Bloodless Revolution
-Limited the monarchs power

Effects of the enlightenment
1. Development of the scientific method by Francis Bacon
2. People started to be inquisitive about the truth (i.e. universe, etc.)
3. Philosophers started to write topics that relate to government, politics, and rights (i.e. Montesquieu-separating of branches, Voltaire, etc.)
4. American Revolution
5. Science and the influence of reason led to new innovations in political thought.
6. Modern politics and separation of powers and checks and balances

Roundheads
Victorious parliament forces lead by Cromwell

Cavaliers
Supporters of the king. Lost to Roundheads.

Philosophers
Intellectuals of the enlightenment