World History Chapter 23 Study Guide

Estates
Class system in France before the French
Revolution. There were three Estates, First Estate was Clergy, Second was Nobility, and Third was peasants, merchants, and townspeople.

Anciens Regime
Old social class system of the 3 estates

Old Regime
Same as anciens regime

Bourgeoisie
Educated, Middle class people

Deficit Spending
Government spends more money than it collects

Cahiers
Notebooks of the 3 estates which listed their grievances [complaints]

Estates General
The legislative body of France. Each Estate was entitled to one vote on legislative matters. Louis XVI was forced to call it together in 1789 to get more money.

National Assembly
Third Estate declared themselves this body; First new government during the first stage of the French Revolution.

Tennis Court Oath
Oath taken by the 3rd estate, promising to write a new constitution for France.

Bastille
Prison in Paris where political prisoners were held; storming of Bastille marked the beginning of the Revolution

Émigré
Nobles who fled France during the revolution.

Sans-culotte
Working class radicals of the Revolution.

Great Fear
Period of chaos caused by famine in which peasants rioted against nobles.

“Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity”
The slogan used in the French Revolution of 1789 to mean freedom for all persons, equal treatment regardless of inherited status, and brotherhood of all people working together to make a better world.

Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Revolutionary document of the French Revolution. Written in 1789, it spelled out certain rights believed to be universal to all mankind. Patterned on the American
Declaration of Independence.

Lafayette
Hero of American Revolution; Led the National Guard

National Guard
A middle class militia created to fight against the royal troops

Tricolor
Flag of the Revolution (Red, white, and blue)

Civil Constitution of the Clergy
1790 bishops and priests became elected, salaried officials; Papal authority over French Church ended; dissolved convents and monasteries. Many peasants did not agree with this.

Constitution of 1791
Made France a limited monarchy; created the Legislative Assembly to make laws, collect taxes, and decide on issues of war and peace.

Declaration of Pilnitz
Emperor of Austria threatened to intervene in France to protect the French monarchy

Jacobins
Radical leaders of Legislative Assembly; mostly middleclass lawyers or intellectuals

Legislative Assembly
Lawmaking body created by Constitution

Constitutional Monarchy
A political system in which a country is ruled by a monarch who has limited power due to a constitution.

September Massacres
Attack on prisons holding many nobles and priests; these prisoners were killed along with many common criminals

Louis XVI
King of France during the Revolution; he was executed in January 1793

Marie Antoinette
Queen of France who is disliked by the
French people. She was executed in
October 1793.

Suffrage
The right to vote

French Republic
Government of France ruled by the National Convention

National Convention
Legislative body created by the Radicals after the September Massacres

Committee of Public Safety
12 member committee that ruled with absolute power; goal was to defend France from antirevolutionaries; led by Robespierre; ran the Reign of Terror

Robespierre
Jacobin leader who become leader of Committee of Public Safety; goal was to make France a “Republic of Virtue”; instituted the Reign of Terror

Reign of Terror
Period during the Revolution from July 1793 to July 1794 when thousands of people were executed without fair trials

Guillotine
Method of execution used during the Reign of Terror

Directory
5 man ruling body created by the
Constitution of 1795; held power from 1795 to 1799; it was ineffective and corrupt.

Nationalism
Pride in one’s country or culture, often excessive in nature. This was an effect of the Revolution and rule of Napoleon

“La Marseillaise”
Patriotic song of Revolution, which was banned by Napoleon and later became
France’s national anthem

Olympe de Gouges
Leader of women’s rights; created a “Declaration of the Rights of Women”; gains were taken away by Napoleon

Jacques Louis David
Leading artist of this period

Napoleon
General and emperor; ended the period of revolution and violence in France by stabilizing the government and the currency, promoted equality of the people before the law, as well as religious toleration through the Napoleonic Code of
Laws.

Corsica
Island where Napoleon was born

Plebiscite
Ballot where voters say yes or no to an issue; used by Napoleon to gain power

First Consul
Title taken by Napoleon after his coup d’etat overthrew the Directory

French Empire
French territory under rule of Napoleon; Napoleon annexed territory and abolished the Holy Roman Empire

Continental System
Napoleon attempt to block trade between Great Britain and the rest of Europe as a way to weaken Great Britain

Abdicate
To give up power to rule

Napoleonic Code
A series of laws established by Napoleon that affected the lands he conquered throughout Western Europe. This law code reinforced many of the ideals of the French Revolution such as religious toleration and equality before the law.

Waterloo
Place in Belgium where Napoleon faced his final defeat

Congress of Vienna
Conference held after the defeat of Napoleon, led by Austria under the direction of Prince Metternich. Its goals were to turn back the clock (reactionary) and erase the ideals of the French
Revolution.

Balance of Power
A political policy in which countries attempt to preserve peace by keeping an equal military and economic status.

Prince Metternich
Austrian prince who led the Congress of Vienna; goal was to create a lasting peace by establishing a balance of power.

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