World History – Chapter 1 – Sec 1

Prehistory
period before writing was developed

Archaeology
the study of past societies of what people have left behind by early people

artifacts
tools, pottery, paintings, weapons, building and household items of early people.

Anthropology
study of human life and culture based on artifacts and human fossils.

fossils
a remnant or impression of an organism from a past geologic age that has been preserved in the earth’s crust.

australopithecines
“southern apes” earliest human-like creatures that flourished in eastern and southern Africa three to four million years ago.

hominids
humans and other creatures that walk upright. – 1st stage in human development

Homo Erectus
“upright human being” a species that emerged around 1.5 million years ago and marked a second stage of early human development.

Homo Sapiens
“wise human being” -a species that emerged around 250,000 years ago and marked a third stage in human development.

Neanderthals
type of Homo sapiens that lived in Europe and the Middle East between 1000,000 and 30,000 B.C.

Homo sapiens sapiens
“wise, wise human being” a species that appeared in Africa between 150,000 and 200,000 years ago; they were the first anatomically modern humans.

Paleolithic Age
from the Greek for “Old Stone Age” the period of human history, from approximately 2,500,000 to 10,000 b.c. during humans used simple stone tools.

Nomads
people who moved from place to place

Louis B. Leakey
a British paleonthropologist and archaeologist whose work was important in establishing human evolutionary development in Aftica, particularly through his discoveries in the Olduvai Gorge

Mary Nicol Leakey
a British paleoanthropologist who discovered the first fossilized Prosonsul skull, an extinct ape now believed to be ancestral to humans. For much of her career she worked with her husband, Louis Leakey, in the Olduvai Gorge, in eastern Africa, uncovering the tools and fossils of ancient hominines.

Donald Johansson
An American paleoanthropoligist. He is known for discovering the fossil of a female hominid australopithecine known as “Lucy: in the Afar Triangle region of

Olduvai Gorge
a steep-sided ravine in the Great Rift Valley that stretches trough eastern Africa.

Lascaux
set of complex of caves in southwestern France famous for its Paleolithic cave paintings.