World Geography (unit 1 study guide)

What is geography?
Where people, places, animals, plants, and things are found on earth; study of the distribution and interaction of physical and human features on earth.
What is a map?
A visual representation of a portion of the earth.
compass rose
(direction indicator) shows where the cardinal directions lie on a map
intermediate directions
northeast, northwest,southeast, and southwest
scale
tells the user about the size of the map in relation to the size of the real world by providing the ratio between distances on the map and actual distances on earth
legend
tells the user about the symbols used on a map (railroad, highway, city limits, boundary, airport) EVEN number highways go EAST TO WEST, ODD number highways go NORTH TO SOUTH
latitude and longitude
imaginary lines that form a grid covering the whole globe; this grid helps geographers find location of places anywhere in the world
the grid
lines of latitude, like the equator, run east to west around the globe; lines of longitude, like the prime meridian, run north to south, meeting at the poles; together, they form a grid; every place on earth has a unique place on the grid
parallels
lines of latitude are often called parallels because they run parallel to the equator
meridians
another name for lines of longitude; cross the lines of latitude and run from pole to pole
globe
a scale model of the earth
cartographer
mapmakers
great circle route
an imaginary line along the curve of the earth
physical maps
depict many kinds of physical features, including mountains, rivers, and lakes; areas of water are usually colored blue
relief
the changing elevation of land is represented either by shading or changing colors; green=lower elevations, orange/brown=higher elevations
political maps
show political features, features that are determined by people such as state and national boundaries and capital cities
special purpose maps
maps that display very specific data or information
road maps
roads in a given region
climate maps
General temperatures and precipitation information
vegetation maps
population density maps
number of people per square mile
natural resource maps
bar graphs
a simple way to compare information in a visual way
line graphs
show the relationships between two sets of information such as employment and time
circle graphs
an easy way to show the size of parts to a single whole; whole or total is represented by a circle and is broken into pre shaped sections
cross-sectional diagrams
enable one to see or view something as if the subject has been cut and one is viewing one slice from the side
tables
organize information into rows or columns
location
a places position on the globe, the most common way to find absolute or exact locations by using imaginary lines on the globe
place
each place has physical and human characteristics, physical is climate, landforms and vegetation, human are people that live there, work there, etc. places can be described in ways that are similar and different
region
a group of places with at least one thing in common; can be physical, political, or cultural, Chinatown contains many Chinese people, cornbelt- a lot of corn grown there
human- environment interaction
how people use and change their environment, people build roads and bridges and factories, change of environment- southwest one time had few people, hot/arid- air conditioning caused people to move there
absolute location
is an exact location where a city is found
relative location
not and exact location, a description of a place in comparison to other places around it