WM-Psych, Chapter 6

Stimulus
A feature of the environment that is detected by an organism or that leads to a change in behavior.
Response
An observable reaction to a stimulus.
Conditioning
A type of learning that involves stimulus-response connections, in which the response in conditional on the stimulus.
Classical Conditioning
A type of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to elicit an unconditioned response when that neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with a stimulus that normally causes an unconditioned response.
Unconditioned Response
In classical conditioning, an unlearned response.
Conditioned Response
A learned response to a previously neutral stimulus.
Conditioned Stimulus
A previously neutral stimulus that, because of pairing with an unconditioned stimulus, now causes a conditioned response.
Taste Aversion
A type of classical conditioning in which a previously desirable or neutral food comes to be perceived as repugnant because it is associated with negative stimulation.
Extinction
In classical conditioning, the disappearance of a conditioned response when an unconditioned stimulus no longer follows a conditioned stimulus.
Spontaneous Recovery
The reappearance of an extinguished conditioned response after some time has passed.
Generalization
The tendency to respond in the same way to stimuli that have similar characteristics.
Discrimination
In classical conditioning, the ability to distinguish the conditioned stimulus from other stimuli that are similar.
Systematic Desensitization
A type of counterconditioning, used to treat phobias, in which a pleasant, relaxed state is associated with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli.
Counterconditioning
A therapy procedure based on classical conditioning that replaces a negative response to a stimulus with a positive response.
Operant Conditioning
Learning that is strengthened when behavior is followed by positive reinforcement.
Reinforcement
A stimulus or event that follows a response and increases the frequency of that response.
Primary Reinforcers
Stimuli, such as food or warmth, that have reinforcement value without learning.
Secondary Reinforcers
Stimuli that increase the probability of a response because of their association with a primary reinforcer.
Positive Reinforcers
Encouraging stimuli that increase the frequency of a behavior when they are presented.
Negative Reinforcers
An unpleasant stimulus that increases the frequency of behavior when it is removed.
Schedule of Reinforcement
A timetable for when and how often reinforcement for a particular behavior occurs.
Continuous Reinforcement
The reinforcement of a desired response every time it occurs.
Partial Reinforcement
A type of conditioned learning in which only some of the responses are reinforced.
Shaping
In operant conditioning, a procedure in which reinforcement guides behavior toward closer approximations of the desired goal.
Latent Learning
Learning that occurs but remains hidden until there is a need to use it.
Observational Learning
Learning by observing and imitating the behavior of others.
Unconditioned Stimulus
In classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits an unlearned, naturally occurring response.
Ivan Pavlov
Researcher most closely associated with the study of Classical Conditioning
B.F. Skinner
Research most closely associated with the study of Operant Conditioning
John Watson
Researcher who demonstrated classical conditioning in his infamous Little Albert Experiment
Little Albert Experiment
Experiment conducted by John Watson that demonstrated classical conditioning.
Albert Bandura
Research most closely associated with the study of Observational Learning and the Bobo Doll Experiment.
Bobo Doll Experiment
Experiment which demonstrated that children exposed to aggressive behaviors by adult models tended to exhibit those aggressive behaviors themselves.