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The increase caused ambitious economic programs in Russia, Saudi Arabia and in some areas of the Persian Gulf, but fell quickly in 2008. Regional trade associations came into being to promote growth, reduce the economic vulnerability of member states and balance economic dominance; the Economic union was the most successful. The Euro competed with the U. S. Dollar, but unequal levels of development among members became a source of friction in 2009 as the world economic downturn devastated stock markets and Increased unemployment.

Despite the expansion of ELI, NONFAT governed the world’s largest free trade zone and eliminating tariffs among the US, Canada and Mexico. The SOC, formed with China, Russia and 4 former Soviet Central Asian republics pursued common security interests, such as combating separatist movements and terrorism. Efforts to rescue countries in economic trouble became a concern of the MIFF and World Bank and of wealthy countries. WTFO: An trade The great appeal of democracy is that it allows for the peaceful resolution of differences between a country social, cultural and regional groups.

Democratic institutions gained ground in Eastern Europe and in Russia during the last decade. Since 1991, democracy has become the norm in Latin America. C. Global Financial Crisis D. Regime Change in Iraq and Afghanistan In Asia, Indonesia and China have moved towards more open political processes. The election of the BGP in India has increased tensions between India and Pakistan, as well as between Indian’s Hindus and Muslims. With the notable exception of South Africa, elections in sub-Sahara Africa have often been used by would-be dictators as the first step in establishing their political and military dominance.

In the Middle-East however, democracy is the exception not the rule. In addition to internal factors, the changed politics of the post-Cold War era and the demands of global economic forces have played important roles in contributing to the growth of democracy in individual countries. Vast amounts of European and American investments in Thailand, Indonesia, South Korea and other East Asian countries created an illusion of great economic dynamism; but in 1997 the investment boom burst, leading to a severe economic Afghanistan and Iraq as well as lowering taxes, the national debt climbed dramatically.

New and risky lending techniques based on an assumption that home rises would continue to rise indefinitely had caused bad debts to be distributed throughout the banking system. This caused catastrophic economic downturns, consumer demand plummeted and unemployment climbed as employers lay off workers. Barack Obama had a plan to Jolt the economy back to health, but it included massive spending. Recent events had raised concerns about terrorism and the proliferation and dissemination of Wand’s. Many countries, including the US had begun new nuclear weapons programs.

WIND: Nuclear, chemical and biological devices that are capable of injuring and killing large numbers of people. II. The Question of Values A. Faith and Politics B. Universal Rights and Values Fears about Wand’s and terrorism came together in the concern that terrorist organizations would gain access to Wand’s. President Bush’s declaration of the “War on Terrorism” and preemptive strikes by the US on Afghanistan and Iraq raised fears in much of the world that the US no longer felt itself bound by international institutions and international law.

Around the world Catholics followed Pope John Paul II and Pope Benedict WI, believing in the opposition of abortion, homosexuality, and marriage of priests and admission of women into priesthood. Jews known as harried played a leading role in setting the Palestinian territories captured by Israel. Terrorism: Political belief that extreme and seemingly random violence will destabilize a government and permit the terrorists to gain political advantage. It was increased with the media covering the events, publicly showing the people.

Osama bin Laden: Saudi-born Muslim extremist who funded the al-Qaeda that was responsible for the 9/1 1 attacks amongst other terrorist attacks. Most bombings in the Middle-east resulted in Muslim casualties as Sunnis and Shiite groups squared off against one other, thus minimizing the image of the suicide bomber as a fanatic hater of the West. Some analysts argued that Islam itself encouraged violence against non-Muslims. , but it was pointed out that terrorists came from many backgrounds and that the vast majority saw the religion as a peaceful one.

The UN sought to protect the rights of individuals through the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, passed by the General Assembly in December 1948. The declaration’s emphasis on individual rights was derived mostly from European and American history; many of the countries that later signed this declaration had serrations about the universal nature of concepts that had been formed exclusively on the basis of the western culture tradition.

C. Women’s Rights Rather than addressing fundamental philosophical issues regarding the concept of human rights, human rights activists worked through nongovernmental organizations and focused their efforts on agreed-upon violations of human rights: torture, imprisonment without trial, summary execution by death squads, famine relief and refugee assistance.

Demands by the US that its citizens be exempted from jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court and its withdrawal from the Kyoto agreement have prompted charges of hypocrisy form critics of the US governments. Universal Declaration of Rights: A 1948 UN covenant binding signatory nations to the observance of specified rights. MONGO: Nonprofit international organizations devoted to the Nobel Peace Prize in the asses. The women’s rights movement became an important human rights issue in the 20th century.

Rights for women became accepted in Western countries, in 1979 the UN adopted the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Feminists from the West, who had been accustomed to dictating the agenda and who ad pushed for the liberation of women sometimes were accused of having narrow minded concerns and condescending attitudes. Western women and many secular leaders protested Salami’s requirement that a women had to cover her body.

Nevertheless, Muslim women voluntarily donned concealing garments. Such efforts raised the prominence of human-rights as a global concern and put pressure on governments to consider human rights when making foreign policy decisions. For some critics, the human rights movement was seen not as an effort to make the world more humane, but as another form of Western culture imperialism. Ill. Global Culture A. The Media and the Message B. The Spread of Pop Culture C.

Emerging Global Elite Culture After WI, the US became the world’s leading exporter of movies. IN the asses television began to spread to most of the non-western world, where government’s monopolies ensured that the new medium would be used to disseminate a unified national viewpoint rather than function as a medium for the transmission of western transmissions technology to enter the international market; MET created special editions adapted to the tastes of local markets, but CNN proffered a fundamentally American view of the news.

The development of digital technologies offered the possibility of combining the separate technologies of movies, televisions and computer, while the development of the Internet transformed business and education. These technological innovations could be seen as portents of western- especially American-cultural domination, but as technology became more widespread, people around the world had more opportunities to adapt that technology to their own purposes. Popular culture shifted from folk tales and style of dress, cooking, music and visual expression, only the literate few had full access to the riches of a broader “great radiation”.

Global Pop Culture: Popular cultural practices and institutions that have been adopted internationally, such as music, internet, televisions, food and fashion. In the beginning, the content was heavily American, businesses sought out world- wide celebrities to endorse their products. American movies also developed immense followings and inspired local imitations. But America was not the only country that produced popular movies, such as India, Japan, and Hong Kong.

Cultural links across national and ethnic boundaries at the elite level generated such less controversy than did the globalization of popular culture. Russian- American collaboration on space missions and in the business world, the flow of graduate students and researchers around the world to American scientific laboratories and the use of English as a global language. D. Enduring Cultural Diversity The importance of English as a global language is evident in the emergence of an international literature in English. Western universities have become the model for higher education around the world.

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