Week One Biochem Review II Flashcard

Bond strength depends on four things:
temperature, pressure, bond angle, & environment
Water has ________ bonds among _________ on one water molecule & the __________ on another water molecule
hydrogen; hydrogens; oxygen
each water molecule can bind up to _______ other water molecules, through partial charges of hydrogen bonding
4
Water has a __________ bond between the ______ atom & the _________ atom
covalent; oxygen and hydrogen
small localized __________ charge around the oxygen atom & a small localized _________ charge around the hydrogen atoms
negative; positive
This uneven distribution of positive and negative charges classifies water as a_______ _________ __________.
polar covalent bond
Water is a _____________.
nucleophile
Water Donates unpaired e- to ______________.
electrophiles
Water can act as both what?
acid and base
H+ typically are responsible for increasing/decreasing pH
decreasing
OH- typically are responsible for __________ pH.
raising
water is often in a _____________ equilibrium
dissociation
Intracellular fluid (ICF; fluid inside the cell)
– makes up ____% of body weight
– has a 11:1 ratio of __ to ___
40%; K to Na
Extracellular fluid: (ECF; fluid outside the cells)
– makes up ___% of bodyweight.
– has a 14:1 ratio of __ to __
20%; Na to K
Interstitial fluid (ISF) surrounds the cells but doesn’t _______ and makes up about ___ of the ECF
circulate; three fourths
________ makes up about ? of the ECF & circulates
Plasma
____ is the main cation in plasma
Na+
___ is the main anion in plasma
Cl-
main anions in ICF are __________.
proteins
Osmosis: type of diffusion of water through any barrier from a solution of ___ solute concentration to a solution of ____ solute concentration
low; high
An increase in ECF osmolality (ion concentration) leads to movement of water from the cells into the ECF, and ultimately to________ _________.
cellular dehydration
When ECF osmolality (ion concentration) decreases water moves______ the cell from the ECF. ______ soon follows
into; edema
ECF hypertonic –____ ion concen-relative to cell
high
ECF hypotonic –____ ion conc-relative to cell
low
Regulation of water balance depends on:
1) hypothalamic mechanisms controlling
thirst
2) ADH (anti-diuretic hormone)
3) retention or excretion of water by the
kidneys
4) evaporative losses due to respiration &
perspiration
The ________ play a vital role in maintaining the composition & volume of the ______.
kidneys; ECF
When circulating extracellular fluid decreases by ~10%, get thirsty & triggers __________ ______ __________.
non-osmotic ADH release
hypovolemic (low volume) thirst – your body is ________ from _________.
dehydrated; sweating
Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus
Results from inability of renal tubular ADH osmoreceptors (in kidneys) to respond to ADH
Cannot respond to subtle changes in ECF osmolarity
Characterized by extreme thirst, high water intake
& inability to concentrate urine; these symptoms are similar to those observed in Diabetes Mellitus

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