Week 1 Pain Management ATI module

What is adjuvant analgesia?
a drug primarily used to treat something other than pain but also enhances pain relief
What is analgesia?
Absence of sensitivity to pain
What is analgesic ceiling?
The dose of the drug which has the most effect
What is breakthrough pain?
a flaring of moderate to severe pain despite therapeutic doses of analgesics
What are Complementary therapies?
treatment approaches used to complement (متمم) conventional medical treatments
What is dermatome?
An area of skin supplied with afferent nerve fibers from a single posterior spinal root
How do opioids act to reduce pain?
one of a group of analgesics that act on higher centers of the brain and spinal cord to modify perceptions of moderate to severe pain
What is titration?
the process of gradually adjusting the dose of a medication until the desired effect is achieved
If the large nerve fibers are more active than the small nerve fibers, the “gate” is ——- and the person should have ——.
little or no pain
What opens the gate?
If there is more activity in small nerve fibers, those nerve fibers activate projector neurons and block the inhibitory neurons. That opens the “gate,” and the person feels pain.
Cancer pain is usually due to ——.
Tumor progression
Pain types by duration?
Pain types by etiology?
Cancer pain
Burn pain
Pain types by pathology?
Nociceptive pain
Neuropathic pain
What are different types of nociceptive pain?
Somatic (mosculoskeletal)
Visceral (Internal organ)
Neuropathic pain is from what kind of injury?
abnormal or damaged pain nerves
What is idiopathic pain?
chronic pain that persists in the absence of a detectable cause
What is Phantom pain?
the pain patients feel in the area where they previously had a limb that has been amputated
What is referred pain?
pain that originates elsewhere but is felt in another location
What is radiating pain?
pain perceived at the source and in tissues that are adjacent to the source.
What is intractable pain?
pain that defies relief. incurable
What is the time frame to reassess for pharmacological interventions to pain management in oral medication?
30 to 45 minutes
What is the time frame to reassess for pharmacological interventions to pain management in intramuscular administration of analgesics?
15 to 30 minutes
What is the time frame to reassess for pharmacological interventions to pain management in intravenous medications?
5 to 15 minutes
What are the least reliable signs of pain?
elevated pulse and respiratory rates
How does body respond to unrelieved pain?
1. The endocrine and cardiovascular systems respond with increased activity
2. body’s metabolism speeds up
3. The respiratory, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal systems reduce their function
4. The musculoskeletal system becomes erratic, causing muscle spasms, fatigue, and altered function
5. Mobility decreases
6. the immune system becomes depressed, thus making the patient susceptible to illness and delayed recovery
What is the scale used to assess pain in premature infants and neonates in the hospital setting?
CRIES scale of 0-2
C: Crying
R: Increase in oxygen Requirement from baseline
I: Increase in vital signs from baseline
E: Expression on face
S: Sleeping
What is the scale used to assess pain in infants and children 2 months to 7 years old to assess pain?
Facial expression
Leg movement
What are patient’s responsibilities in pain management?
1. ask for pain relief sooner rather than later.
2. work with the healthcare team to develop a pain management plan.
3. help the healthcare team evaluate their pain and the effectiveness of pain-relief interventions.
4. share any information or concerns they might have about taking pain medication.
What is thermal therapy?
1 Applying cold: causes vasoconstriction and reduces swelling. It helps reduce acute pain and swelling initially from an injury.
2. Applying heat: Heat causes vasodilatation, thus improving circulation and promoting healing. Heat is often used to reduce muscle and joint pain.
In thermal therapy, How long do we apply ice for?
Not any longer than 15 mins
What is Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)?
Delivers a mild electric current over a painful region via electrodes applied to the skin. The patient activates the TENS unit when feeling pain. The tingling sensation it creates helps reduce pain perception.
Medications used to manage pain fall into three broad categories?
1. nonopioids
2. opioids
3. adjuvants
What are nonopioids?
pain-relieving drugs that do not contain what has traditionally been called a narcotic component. Examples of nonopioids are aspirin, acetaminophen, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
What are opioids?
commonly referred to as narcotics. strong analgesics, and drugs capable of causing physical dependence. Examples of opioids are morphine and codeine.
What are adjuvants?
Drugs that are primarily used to treat something other than pain, but that improve pain relief when used in combination with a pain medication. Examples of adjuvants are antidepressants, antihistamines, corticosteroids, and anticonvulsants.
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