We The People 10th Edition Chapter 3

block grants
Federal grants-in-aid that permit state and local officials to decide how the money will be spent within a general area, such as education or health

categorical grants
Federal grants-in-aid to states and localities that can be used only for designated projects.

commerce clause
The authority granted Congress in Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution “to regulate commerce” among the states.

confederacy
A governmental system in which sovereignty is vested entirely in subnational (state) governments.

cooperative federalism
The situation in which the national, state, and local levels work together to solve problems.

devolution
The passing down of authority from the national government to the state and local governments.

dual federalism
A doctrine based on the idea that a precise separation of national power and state power is both possible and desirable.

enumerated (expressed) powers
The seventeen powers granted to the national government under Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution. These powers include taxation and the regulation of commerce as well as the authority to provide for the national defense.

federalism
A governmental system in which authority is divided between two sovereign levels of government: national and regional

fiscal federalism
A term that refers to the expenditure of federal funds on programs run in part through states and localities.

grants-in-aid
Federal cash payments to states and localities for programs they administer.

implied powers
The federal governments constitutional authority (through the “necessary and proper” clause) to take action that is not expressly authorized by the Constitution but that supports actions that are so authorized.

nationalization
The process by which national authority has increased over the course of US history as a result primarily of economic change but also of political action.

“necessary and proper” (elastic) clause
the authority granted to Congress in Article I, section 8 of the Constitution “to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper” for the implementation of its enumerated powers.

reserved powers
The powers granted to the states under the tenth amendment to the Constitution.

sovereignty
The supreme (or ultimate) authority to govern within a certain geographical area.

supremacy clause
Article VI of the Constitution, which makes the Constitution, national laws, and treaties supreme over state laws when the national government is acting within its constitutional limits.

unitary system
A governmental system in which the national government alone has sovereign (ultimate) authority.

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