Water Desalination Essay Essay
The supply of fresh water is a confining factor in any civilisation. Freshwater is defined as Waterss holding less than 1 % dissolved solid content. Freshwater is obtained from rivers. lakes. watercourses and belowground beginnings. Early civilisations were situated near fresh water organic structures. enabling the population to bathe and imbibe. the harvests to be on a regular basis watered and livestock to be adequately hydrated. Today. fresh water is utilized in a assortment of ways. The most of import usage of fresh water is still for human ingestion ( imbibing ) .
Other utilizations are for irrigation of agricultural harvests. for farm animal and for lubricating or chilling industrial machineries. However. fresh water histories for merely a little per centum of the entire H2O content of the Earth. Out of this little per centum. merely approximately is accessible to adult male. the remainder is locked up in glacial ice. or stored deep resistance. The huge majoriy of the earth’s H2O is brackish or salty. This means that it has a high dissolved solid content. This gives it a salty gustatory sensation. and is by and large unsuitable for human. farm animal and harvest use.
Water desalinization is a wide term for a broad scope of different procedures which reduces the entire sum of solids dissolved in H2O. It is normally used to bring forth fresh water from sea or brackish H2O beginnings. Water generated through desalinization is utilised either for human ingestion. industry usage or agricultural irrigation. ( Smith & A ; Shaw. 1999 ) Desalination was said to hold started from the demand of seafaring vass to hold a supply of imbibing H2O. The earliest method of obtaining fresh water from salt H2O uses the procedure of distillment.
The procedure uses heat to vaporize saltwater. dividing the dissolved solids from the H2O vapour. and so distilling the vapour to obtain H2O. Other agencies of desalinization include ion exchange. electrodialysis. change by reversal osmosis utilizing standard membranes and change by reversal osmosis utilizing high opposition membranes. Water desalinization is extremely utilised in coastal. In-between Eastern states. where the deficiency of surface fresh H2O and the propinquity and copiousness of saltwater in the country makes desalinization a feasible option. Desalination in Abu Dhabi. United Arab Emirates
Abu Dhabi is the capital metropolis of the United Arab Emirates. It is located on a little island on the western seashore of the Arabian Gulf. It has a population of 942463 ( Census. 2005 ) the highest among all the Emirates. The United Arab Emirates ranks 3rd in universe per capita H2O ingestion ( 550 litres per caput ) . ( Todorova. 2008 ) Groundwater constitutes 81 % of Abu Dhabi’s H2O supply ( 805 of which is brackish and 1 % fresh ) . desalinated saltwater accounts’ for 15 % and 4 % is supplied by treated effluent workss. Abu Dhabi has four chief desalinization workss ; Mirfa. Abu Dhabi. Um al Naar and Taweelah.
( ERWDA. 2002 ) The largest desalinization works located at the Mirfa power works uses heat from the dodo fuel powered turbines to desalinate saltwater through multi phase brassy distillment procedure. The United Arab Emirates’ power coevals and ingestion are among the highest in the universe. And it is still increasing as the Emirates grow in prosperity and in population. Almost all of the energy consumed in the United Arab Emirates is generated utilizing fossil fuel. about 64 % per centum from natural gas and the staying 36 % from oil.
( EIA. 2007 ) Figure 1. 0 Electricity coevals of United Arab Emirates signifier 1994 to 2004 ( EIA. 2007 ) In Abu Dhabi. power coevals goes manus in manus with H2O desalinization. Power workss utilize modern and advanced gas turbines which burn natural gas and is capable of firing oil besides. Heat generated from the gas turbines is recovered in heat recovery steam generators or boilers before burning gases are vented to the ambiance. Boiler H2O is converted into steam that drives steam turbines to bring forth electricity. ( EAAD. 2007 )
Although steam loses energy upon contact with the turbine. it retains adequate heat to exchange with saltwater in a seawater warmer. This saltwater will hold bit by bit gained heat in Multi-Stage Flash Evaporators before making the seawater warmer. where seawater temperature will lift even more due to steam from the turbines. After go outing the seawater warmer. the het saltwater will be flashed in the distiller to change over it into pure H2O vapour that condenses into drinkable H2O. ( Wagner. 2007 ) Figure 2. 0 Multi Stage Flash Distillation operation strategy. ( Zactruba )
In the multi phase brassy distillment procedure. incoming H2O ( feed H2O ) is heated and is transferred to a series of Chamberss with progressively lower force per unit area. This procedure utilizes steam from the old chamber to heat the following so that the latent heat is transferred. The Taweelah works on the other manus uses both multi phase brassy distillment procedure and multi consequence distillment. Multi consequence distillment uses tubing walls to heat fluxing feed H2O. The vapour produced from this is so utilised to heat the heat exchange tubings in other Chamberss.
The condensate in each heat exchange tubing is collected and extracted. ( Wagner. 2007 ) Figure 3. 0 Multi consequence distillment procedure ( Bartosh. Boerboom. Brzenski. & A ; Checka ) Aside from distillment engineerings. another method is through the usage of membranes. which trap the solutes and let the pure. free dissolver to come out. Solar-powered desalinization With the increasing demand for electricity. H2O and besides an international blare to cut fossil fuel usage and resort to renewable beginnings of energy. Abu Dhabi has a assortment of options in footings of H2O desalinization.
Foremost among these options is the usage of solar energy to bring forth electricity every bit good as to run a desalinization works. Solar energy is extremely feasible in desert states which have an about consistent annually twenty-four hours length and high mean temperatures. ( Kearney. 2008 ) Measurement of one-year solar radiation in Abu Dhabi indicates that it has a high potency for solar energy coevals. ( Islam. Kubo. Ohadi. & A ; Alili. 2009 ) Two general types of engineering exist for pin downing solar energy. Photovoltaic solar panels ( PV ) use the sun’s energy to excite negatrons and bring on a direct flow of current.
Solar thermic energy or concentrating solar power on the other manus uses the Sun for heat. and that heat is so utilised to bring forth electricity. ( Kearney. 2008 ) Figure 4. 0 Solar Desailination ( TERRIN ) Solar engineering requires a high initial budget to obtain the installations and the engineering. Another reverse to solar engineering is that it is highly difficult to bring forth electricity systematically for 24 hours since the country is merely exposed to the Sun for a certain period of clip and current battery engineering is still inefficient in hive awaying huge sums of power.
Other signifiers of renewable energy capable of prolonging desalinization systems include geothermic. air current. tidal and rearward osmosis engineerings. Geothermal energy utilizes thermic blowholes from below the Earth’s surface to power steam driven turbines. Rearward osmosis engineering uses the difference in osmotic force per unit area to bring on the flow of H2O. perchance through a turbine which generates electricity. Figure 5. 0 Possible combinations of renewable energy beginnings with desalinization engineerings. ( Drioli & A ; Curcio. 2001 ) Conclusion Abu Dhabi is ranked among the highest in footings of current and projected energy and H2O ingestion.
Therefore. there is a demand to develop engineerings which would run into these demands for the hereafter. while switching off from fossil fuel use and land H2O tapping. The high energy demand of Abu Dhabi has lead to cogeneration of H2O from the sea. a pattern that can be continued. albeit power coevals will now come from renewable beginnings of energy. The clime of Abu Dhabi is ideal for solar energy coevals and with grosss obtained from tapping into oil and gas militias in the yesteryear. the initial disbursal of edifice installations to tap the Sun for energy can be covered.
The hereafter of desalinization utilizing solar engineering in Abu Dhabi is a assuring one. nevertheless. farther research and development is needed to cut down the initial costs every bit good as to better upon bing energy storage engineering to further maximise electricity from the Sun.
Census. T. -A. D. ( 2005 ) . hypertext transfer protocol: //www. tedad. ae/english/statistic/population_by_emirates. hypertext markup language. Retrieved from TEDAD Census. Drioli. E. . & A ; Curcio. E. ( 2001 ) . A survey on modern desalinization engineerings in the Gulf