Warfare Methodologies Against Nazi Germany Essay
The profound effects of the world wars are still fresh in the minds of the people. These wars defined the history of the world and have had several implications to the nation’s preparedness in military, economy, and partnerships. The Second World War was the defining moment on how nations treat each other, the human rights movement, and the rise of superpowers.
This essay argues that although the Nazi Germany was prepared for war on all fronts, a combination of scorched earth policy, propaganda and intelligence, strategic bombing, and the invasion of the Normandy among other strategies, ensured victory by the Allies.Background of the Second World War Studies about the Second World War have failed to point out the exact time and event that triggered the commencement of this history-defining war. However, several historical events are seen as a preparatory ground for the war. First, the US Navy development of the War Plan Orange in 1890 to attack Japan and its eventual failure, led to its advancements in preparation for a future war. Later, its devastating effects were felt with the bombing of Nagasaki and Hiroshima cities in Japan that many historians believe marked the end of the Second World War.Second, the unexpected defeat of Russia in 1904-05 by Japan during the Russo-Japanese War could have opened a territorial explorative war window of pacific Asia by the Japanese.
This is later witnessed by the Japan invasion of the China at the Marco Polo Bridge in 1937. Third, although the Great Depression affected many nations, a striking rise in unemployment was a major concern in the developed nations. In the US, Germany, Japan, and other developed nations, there was the mobilization of unemployed in camps and groups to work on conservation projects, farming, and other sectors.In some cases, the military was used to control the activities of the people.
Related to this, was the nationalistic feeling that the development of the nation was everybody’s concern and this led to the desire to expand. Fourth, the Russian revolution of 1917 characterized by the widespread strikes led to the end of autocracy and formation of the Soviet Union led with communist ideologies of Vladimir Lenin. Several territories in Italy and Germany opposed the communist idea and hence broke away.Causes and Role of Germany in the Second World War Due to the lack of clarity on what and when the Second World War began, two versions exist namely 1937-1945 and 1939-1945.
The 1937-1945 was as a result of the war-like activities at the Marco Polo Bridge between Japan and China in 1937. During this time, the Japanese army had engaged and outclassed China army leading to its retreat.The Chine retreat was considered as a strategy to ask for international support. The 1939-1945 describes the beginning of war in Europe.
3]At the time of the war, Germany was led by the Nazi Party under Adolf Hitler whose desire to expand led him to the capture and colonize Czchekoslovakia and Austria from France. As an expansion plan, Hitler invaded and engaged Poland in war a move that angered France who declared support to Poland. Germany had a well-equipped armory and was ready to engage other nations at war at slight provocation. Germany continued its expansion expedition with the capture of France, Norway, Denmark and the other Baltic States.The division of France between Hitler of Germany and Mussolini of Italy was a step into the sovereignty of nations and Britain engage Germany into war. Opposed to Germany expansion plan in North Africa deserts and the Atlantic waters, Britain and Germany were at loggerheads again.
The US, being a neutral ally to Britain decided to offer supplies to Britain during their war with Germany but later joined the war in 1941 when German troops sunk her merchant ships in the Atlantic waters.The Allied ties of Italy, Germany, Japan, Hungary, Denmark, and other Baltic nations was called the Axis military group while Britain, the US, USSR, and other nations formed the Western Allied military group. Initially, the US was not participating in the war with any nation though it was supplying the British and Soviet Union with military supplies, but with the bombing of the Pearl Habour by Japan, she declared war on Japan. All the Axis allies led by Germany declared war on the US. This treaties to support one another during external attacks attracted many nations to join the war.The Germany was engaged in a war on various fronts, and this reduced its capacity to resist the offensive advances of the Allied nations.
The attacks of Germany by the Soviet Union from the west and the US from the south led to the retreat of Hitler from Berlin and eventual defeat of German in the war. The defeat of Germany marked the end of the war in Europe. The end of the war in Europe although a critical step in ending conflicts that had lasted almost six years was not the end of the Second World War.The Pacific region was still at war with the offensive attack of Japan against the Allied troops.
On this front, the major warring pacts were the US and Japan and this had originated from the destruction of Pearl Habour by Japan resulting in the destruction of frontline warships. The advances of the US and its allies captured several islands that were used as supply points of their troops. The pinnacle of the Second World War was characterized by the US bombing of various towns in Japan. These towns include Tokyo, Nagasaki, and Hiroshima.Historical data indicate the decision by the US to use an atomic bomb on Japan as a result of the anticipated fatalities and the defensive strength of Japanese troops during their fight in the Pacific. After the atomic bomb, the Japanese were forced to surrender fearing the other incidences of the bombs.
This event is believed to have brought the Second World War to an end. Methods used against Nazi Germany Germany had established herself as the strongest member of the Axis group alongside Italy and Japan.As the war grew bigger with the entry of more nations, Germany realized that the Soviet Union under Russia was gaining ground in Western Europe and to control the region, the Soviets were to be defeated. To do that, Germany organized the largest invasion force in human history comprising 3,000,000 men in over 150 divisions, 3000 tanks 2500 aircraft, and 7000 artilleries. Nevertheless, the defeat of Germany was to come later through a combination of strategies by the Allied forces: The war in Europe was majorly between the Russian Red Army and the Germany under Hitler.
Germany was advanced on all fronts of military preparedness compared to the Soviet Union whose aircraft were almost obsolete. With the advancing German army in divisions, the Soviet army experienced defeats to several groups resulting in the use of the scorched earth strategy. Partly, this strategy upset and disorganized the Germanys causing slow transitions. In this strategy, the soviet armies burnt and destroyed roads, railways other useful facilities as they retreated. The destruction roads and other transport facilities rendered some of the German machinery useless.In effect, this slowed down the pace of the Germans allowing the Soviet armies to reorganize.
The Normandy Invasion of 1944 by Allied forces caused panic and confusion in the Germany camp. Hitler being in control of most Europe made the Allies to rethink their winning invasion strategy. The Invasion of Normandy was the beginning of the end of the Nazi Germany control of Europe. The US, the British and the Canadian forces started the liberation of France and further entry into Germany. Under the leadership of General Dwight D.Eisenhower the Allied troops, 6000 landing craft, ship and on board 176000 troops left England for France.
This military operation was the largest in history and was named the Operation Overlord. The allied airstrikes destroyed key bridges hampering the movement of Germany troops. In addition, the Allied group had a well-coordinated naval support for the advancing troops. With the failure of the Germany to release her nearby troops to retaliate, they were weakened by the advancing Allied forces.When the US joined the war in the support of the British in the North Africa territories against Germany, there was a consensus that weakening the German military, industry and economic system was the key to winning the war and liberating Western Europe.
This strategic bombing of military armor production centers increased the Allied air presence and supported in monitoring the Germany movement. By crippling the German air power, the Allied forces knew that it’s possible to defeat the Germany on the ground since the Soviet forces were advancing too.Advancement in military armor saw the invention of the anti tanker portable bazooka that delivered high explosive rounds into the bunkers and pill-boxes of the Germans. Although simple, the bazooka further destroyed the advancing German troops. Propaganda of the US intelligence helped understand the advances of Germany. Back in France, the intelligence work of Virginia Hall as a spy exposed the Germany military organizations, supply points, exit, and hiding areas.
This knowledge helped her train the French Resistance to resist German while relaying the information to the Allies.Expanded supplies from the vast US nation and her allies prepared them to fight till the end. With the Japanese bombing of the Pearl Harbor, the US decided to join the war after the approval of the congress. This was a sign of the backing of the US by her people, and therefore enough supplies were provided for the fighting soldiers. On the other hand, the western allies started bombing and capturing the Germany and her axis supplies rendering them weak.
The US had joined this war with full force as it had several sophisticated armories of the time and had used it sparingly as it advanced towards the axis territories.Implications of the Second World War The several events that prepared ground and the various wars fought during the Second World War have found several implications and applications in the contemporary world. Although the war ended seventy-two years ago, its effect is still felt today. After the Second World War, the need for nations to work together and support each in the various aspects of economic development led to the formation of the United Nations headquartered in New York City, US.The UN is an important body in the resolution of conflicts across the world through its security wing that supports warring nations with UN peacekeepers and offering diplomacy in conflict resolution. The end of the Second World War left the US and the Soviet Union under Russia as world superpowers although the collapse of the Soviet Union during the Cold War helped the US to remain as a sole super power.
With the advancements in technology and economies, other nations like China have joined the superpower league.The super power position has seen the US and China compete on several fronts across the globe in the military, financial, and technological support offer. With the end of the Second World War, there were calls across the globe for the end of colonialism as the British, the Germany, and the Portuguese had expanded their territories to African and other areas. In other African territories, Africans had participated in the wars and had seen the vulnerability of the whites and had also received special training. This helped to organize for wars with the colonial masters.
This led to most nations being liberated. 13]During the Second World War, women in the US had joined the workforce in fields dominated earlier by men to support their families in the absence of their husbands, but when the war ended, they were forced to resume their normal duties. This led to the rise and call for human and civil rights. In the US, this was led Martin Luther King Jr.
in India, Mahatma Gandhi led a peaceful call for the human rights activism. The contemporary military arms race is as a result of the Second World War. Although Germany, Japan, Russia, and the US had begun earlier, the war set the stage for every nation to advance in its war armory.Iran and Korea have in the recent past declared their advancements in nuclear bombs and are threatening to use them on any nation that invades her.
Most nations have organized their military into the air force, navy and army with a majority of them recruiting each year. Cold war and breakup of the USSR was a resulting effect of the Second World War. Neighboring nations began advocating for different ideologies that led to the lack of support and withholding vital supplies to other nations. This led to the call of sovereignty and the break-up of the Soviet Union.
During the cold war, Germany was divided into East and West by the famous Berlin Wall and its demolition marked the end of the cold war. Conclusion There is no single event that can define the beginning of the Second World War. However, the activities of Germany through her expansion plan and the eventual bombing of the US Pearl Harbor by Japan could have attracted other nations into the war. It is worth noting that although the war had devastating effects, it was a defining moment in the way nations treat each other, technological and military advancements, and technical support among other aspects.