Vitamins and Minerals Flashcard

Vitamins
Small organic substances with varied functions. essential for health and normal cell division. human body cannot generally produce them.
RDA (recommended dietary amount)
amount of nutrient considered adequate to meet the needs of healthy people. Varies with age and sex.
Hypervitaminosis
excessive amounts of vitamin consuptiom. Most commonly, Vitamins A and/or D.
Threshold
The level where substance begins to be excreted by the kidneys.
Minerals
naturally occuring inorganic substances. 19, 13 essential to health. Human body is unable to produce them.
Metabolism
sum of all biochemical reactions that occur within a cell.
Role of Vitamins
support the creation of conezymes. Without the vitamins, the enzymes would become inactive.
Vitamin Deficiency
absence of one or more vitamins in the body. Results from poor diet and/or inefficient absorption.
Fat Soluble Vitamins
A, D, E, K. absorbed with dietary fat in the small intestine. insoluble in the bloodstreem. excess is stored in human fat.
Water Soluble Vitamins
C, B complex. Essential. absorbed in the small intestine, dissolve in plasma, no stable storage form. excess excreted in urine.
Vitamin A
Also called retinol. fat soluble. proved by carotenes found in colored veggies and animal products.
Functions of Vitamin A
critical for normal vision. used for the growth and maintenance of healthy bone and epithelial tissue
Vitamin A Deficiency Causes:
Most common night blindness which can result in permanent blindness if left untreated. Less common, skin can become dry and pimply.
Vitamin D
sometimes referred to as calciferol or clacitriol. fat soluble vitamin. provided by exposure to sunlight.
Functions of Vitamin D
PRomotes growth and maintenance of bone. important to regulating calcium and Phosphorus.
Vitamin D Deficiencies
In Children, Rickets. In adult, Osteomalacia, and skeletal deterioration.
Vitamin E
tocopherols. fat soluble. found in cereal, green plants, vegetable oils, and animal products.
Functions of Vitamin E
Unknown in humans, in animals key role in normal reproduction, muscle development and RBC stability.
Vitamin E Deficiency
Extremely RARE
Vitamin K
fat soluble vitamins found in green, leafy vegetables, and animal products. produced in the intestine
Functions of Vitamin K
Promotes blood clotting. PROTHROMBIN
Vitamin K Deficiency
delayed clotting times, excessive bleeding, most common in newborns, but also poor fat absorption and antibiotic therapy
Vitamin B1
Thaimine or Thiamin. Water soluble. Found in yeasts, ham/pork, liver, peas, nuts, cerals and milk. Ineffectively stored in the body.
Functions of B1
essential for growth and normal carbohydrate and protein metabolism.
Vitamin B1 Deficiency
sever cases result in beriberi. Moderate cases involve inflammation of many nerves.
Vitamin B2
Riboflavin. WAter soluble. found in lover, eggs, milk, kidney, heart, green veggies, dried yeast.
Functions of B2
synthesis of essential coenzymes, and essential for normal growth.
B2 Deficiency
skin eye and tongue disorders and dermatitis
Vitamin B3
Niacin or nicotinic acid. water soluble. found in protein rich foods.
Functions of B3
required for synthesis of essential coenzymes, essential for normal growth, helps release energy
B3 Deficiency
results in pellagra, gastrointestinal problems, birth defects, nervous and mental disorders.
Vitamin B6
Pyridoxine. water soluble. most foods, especially protein rich.
functions of B6
metablism of proteins and their precursor amino acids

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