|Diverse group of small organic substances that have varied functions. They are essential for health and normal cell division and are needed in small quantities provided in the diet as the human body can generally not produce them.|
(recommended dietary amount)
|Amount of selected nutrients considered adequate to meet established needs of healthy people. This varies with age and sex; though the difference after adolescence is not very significant.|
|A condition produced by the ingestion of excessive amounts of vitamins, commonly associated with excessive intake of vitamins A and/or D.|
|The level the must be reached in which a substance begins to be excreted by the kidneys.|
|Naturally occurring inorganic substance found in the human body.|
|The absence of one or more vitamins in the body.|
|insoluble in the water environment of the bloodstream, are transported by binding to soluble components like proteins.|
|examples of Fat-soluble vitamins|
|vitamins that are absorbed by the small intestine and dissolve in the blood plasma, many must be supplied in the daily diet as there is generally no stable storage form|
|Vitamins C and B complex vitamins [B1 (Thiamine), B2 (Riboflavin), B3 (Niacin), B6 (Pyridoxine), B9 (Folate), and B12 (Cobalamin)]|
|examples of Water-soluble vitamins|
|fat-soluble vitamins often called retinol|
|Critical for normal vision, growth and maintenance of healthy epithelial tissue and bone|
|Symptoms include night blindness due to the impaired function of rod cells in the retina.|
Skin can become dry and pimply like that of a toad.
|Fat-soluble vitamin that has several active forms; sometimes referred to as calciferol or calcitrol.|
|Promotes growth and maintance of bone.|
Certain forms can serve as a hormone important to regulating calcium and phosphorus homeostasis.
|Causes rickets in children, osteomalacia and deterioration in adults|
|Group of fat-soluble vitamins that are sometimes called tocopherols.|
|Cereal, green plants, vegetable oils, and animal products such as liver, eggs, and milk|
|Produced in man from exposure of the skin to sunlight.|
Has few dietary sources so is often supplemented in foods.
|produced in man from the conumption of carotenes found in colored vegetables as well as animal products like liver, eggs, and cheese.|
|Unknown in humans, appears to serve as an antioxidant|
In animals has a key role in reproduction, muscular development, and red blood cell stability.
|Group of fat-soluble vitamins found in many green, leaft vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and eggs. Also produced in adequate amounts by the normal flora found in the intestine.|
|Promites clotting by increasing the synthesis of several coagulation proteins by the liver|
|The most important coagulation protein synthesized by vitamin K|
|Delayed clotting times, excessive leeding and bruises under the skin (hemorrhage).|