Vitamins and Minerals Flashcard

Vitamins
Diverse group of small organic substances that have varied functions. They are essential for health and normal cell division and are needed in small quantities provided in the diet as the human body can generally not produce them.
RDA
(recommended dietary amount)
Amount of selected nutrients considered adequate to meet established needs of healthy people. This varies with age and sex; though the difference after adolescence is not very significant.
Hypervitaminosis
A condition produced by the ingestion of excessive amounts of vitamins, commonly associated with excessive intake of vitamins A and/or D.
Threshold
The level the must be reached in which a substance begins to be excreted by the kidneys.
Minerals
Naturally occurring inorganic substance found in the human body.
Vitamin deficiency
The absence of one or more vitamins in the body.
Fat-soluble vitamins
insoluble in the water environment of the bloodstream, are transported by binding to soluble components like proteins.
Vitamins A, D, E, and K
examples of Fat-soluble vitamins
Water-souble vitamins
vitamins that are absorbed by the small intestine and dissolve in the blood plasma, many must be supplied in the daily diet as there is generally no stable storage form
Vitamins C and B complex vitamins [B1 (Thiamine), B2 (Riboflavin), B3 (Niacin), B6 (Pyridoxine), B9 (Folate), and B12 (Cobalamin)]
examples of Water-soluble vitamins
Vitamin A
fat-soluble vitamins often called retinol
Functions of Vitamin A
Critical for normal vision, growth and maintenance of healthy epithelial tissue and bone
Vitamin A deficiency
Symptoms include night blindness due to the impaired function of rod cells in the retina.
Skin can become dry and pimply like that of a toad.
Vitamin D
Fat-soluble vitamin that has several active forms; sometimes referred to as calciferol or calcitrol.
Functions of Vitamin D
Promotes growth and maintance of bone.
Certain forms can serve as a hormone important to regulating calcium and phosphorus homeostasis.
Vitamin D deficiency
Causes rickets in children, osteomalacia and deterioration in adults
Vitamin E
Group of fat-soluble vitamins that are sometimes called tocopherols.
Sources of Vitamin E
Cereal, green plants, vegetable oils, and animal products such as liver, eggs, and milk
Sources of Vitamin D
Produced in man from exposure of the skin to sunlight.
Has few dietary sources so is often supplemented in foods.
Sources of Vitamin A
produced in man from the conumption of carotenes found in colored vegetables as well as animal products like liver, eggs, and cheese.
Functions of vitamin E
Unknown in humans, appears to serve as an antioxidant
In animals has a key role in reproduction, muscular development, and red blood cell stability.
Vitamin K
Group of fat-soluble vitamins found in many green, leaft vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and eggs. Also produced in adequate amounts by the normal flora found in the intestine.
Function of vitamin K
Promites clotting by increasing the synthesis of several coagulation proteins by the liver
Prothrombin
The most important coagulation protein synthesized by vitamin K
Vitamin K deficiency
Delayed clotting times, excessive leeding and bruises under the skin (hemorrhage).

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