Valley – Chapter 4 vocab Flashcard




how much distance for one complete wave


units: nm (10-9 m)




how many times the wave repeats during one second


number of cycles or vibrations


units: hertz (Hz) or 1/second (s-1)


minimum quantity of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom




“particle of light” which contains exactly one quantum of energy


particle of electromagnetic radiation having zero mass and carrying 1 quantum of energy

ground state
lowest energy state of an atom
excited state
state in which an atom has a higher potential energy than it has in its ground state
line-emission spectrum
a series of specific wavelengths of emitted light created when the visible portion of light from excited atoms is shined through a prism
path of an electron around the nucleus of an atom
energy level
possible level of energy that an electron can have in an atom
a 3-dimensional region around the nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron

– an orbit followed by electrons around an atom nucleus

– each shell can contain only a set number of electrons

– each shell is associated with a particular range of electron energy

– each shell must fill completely before electrons can go into the next shell



electron configuration
the arrangement of electrons in an atom
electron spin
orbital notation
Aufbrau principle
an electron occupies the lower energy orbital that can receive it
Hund’s rule

a) orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by 1 electron before any orbital is occupied by a second electron


b) all electrons in singly occupied orbitals msut have the same spin

Pauli exclusion principle
no two electrons in the same atoms can have the same set of 4 quantum numbers
noble gas configuration
is an outer main energy level fully occupied, in most cases by eight electrons
valence electron
an electron in the outer shell of an atom which can combine with other atoms to form molecules
core electrons

the electrons in the inner part of the atom that are not valence electrons and therefore do not participate in bonding.


electrons occupying completely filled shells under the valence shell.

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