UTA CHEM 1442 CH 14 Flashcard

Bronsted-Lowery Theory
an acid is any substance (molecule or ion) that can transfer a proton (+H ion) to another substance, and a base is any substance that can accept a proton.
Acids are proton _________
donors
Bases are proton ________
acceptors
acid-base reactions are ________
proton-transfer reactions
Bronsted-Lowery acid
a substance that can transfer H+
Bronsted-Lowery base
a substance that can accept H+
conjugate acid-base pairs
species whose formulas differ only by one proton
hydronium ion H3O+
Product of Bronsted-Lowery reaction. (the conjugate aid of H2O)
for a molecule or ion to accept a proton, it must _________________. All bronsted-lowery bases have this.
it must have at least one unshared pair of electrons that it can use for bonding to the proton.
strong acid
one that is almost completely dissociated in water and is therefore a strong electrolyte
electrolyte
substance that dissolves in water to produce solutions that conduct electricity
HClO4
perchloric acid (strong)
HCl
Hydrochloric Acid (strong)
HBr
Hydrobromic acid (strong)
HI
Hydroiodic acid (strong)
strong acids have very ______ conjugate bases
weak
weak acid
one that is only partially dissociated in water and is thus a weak electrolyte
HNO2
nitrous acid (weak acid)
HF
hydrofluoric acid (weak)
CH3CO2H
acetic acid (weak)
NH3, OH-, and H2
very weak acid that dont transfer protons which let the acid dissociation equilibrium lie 100% to the left.
pH scale
refers to the power of 10 (the exponent) used to express the molar H3O+ concentration.

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