USF NURS 211 (Ch 43)

Discuss common misconceptions about pain
-patients who abuse substances overreact to discomforts
-patients who have minor illnesses have less pain than those with severe physical alteration
-administering analgesics regularly leads to drug addiction
-the amount of tissue damage in an injury accurately indicates pain intensity
-healthcare personnel are the best authorities on the nature of a patient’s pain
-psychogenic pain is not real
-chronic pain is not psychological
-patients who are hospitalized will not feel pain
-patients who cannot speak do not feel pain
Transduction (1 of the 4 physiological processes of normal pain)
Converts energy produced by stimuli into electrical energy
– Stage 1
Transmission (1 of the 4 physiological processes of normal pain)
The energy goes through the nerves
– Stage 2
Perception (1 of the 4 physiological processes of normal pain)
The point at which the person is aware of pain
– Stage 3
Modulation (1 of the 4 physiological processes of normal pain)
Inhibition of the pain impulse
– Stage 4
Describe the components of pain assessment
– Pts expression of pain
– Characteristics of pain (OLDCARTS)
Describe guidelines for selecting and individualizing pain interventions
– Ask the pt. about pain regularly
– Believe what the patient tells you
– Choose pain control options appropriate for patient
– Deliver interventions in a timely and logical order
– Empower patients and their family
Cognitive-Behavioral Pain Interventions
Change patient’s perceptions of pain, alter pain behavior, and provide patients with a greater sense of control
– EX: distraction, prayer, relaxation, guided imagery, music, and biofeedback
Physical Approaches of Pain Interventions
Provide pain relief, correct physical dysfunction, alter physiological responses, and reduce fears associated with pain
– EX: chiropractic therapy and acupuncture/acupressure therapy
– They are to be used with, not in place of pharmacological measure
Identify barriers to effective pain management
– Physical dependence, addiction, and drug tolerance
– Experience a physical dependence is not the same as addiction, but that doesn’t mean addiction can’t occur

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