US History Unit 5 Study Guide Vocab Critique Essay

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Secession
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the formal withdrawal of a state from the Union
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Popular sovereignty
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citizens vote on issues that affect them (not gov’t)
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13th Amendment
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amendment proposed by Lincoln that abolished slavery
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14th Amendment
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made \”all persons born and naturalized in the US\” citizens
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15th Amendment
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states that had no one can be restricted from voting because of \”race, color, or previous condition of servitude\”
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Bleeding Kansas
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territory that became a violent battlefield in the civil war
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Border Ruffians
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people from Missouri who crossed into Kansas with revolvers and voted illegally
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Nativism
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the favoring of Native-born Americans over immigrants
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Free-Soiler
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one who opposed the extension of slavery into the territories
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Confederacy
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confederate states of america that were formed by secessionist state delegates
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Reconstruction
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period during which the US began to rebuild during the Civil War
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Freedman’s Bureau
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assisted former slaves and poor whites in the South by distributing clothing and food
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Scalawag
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A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners
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Carpetbagger
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A northerner who went to the South immediately after the Civil War trying to gain political advantage or other advantages from the disorganized situation in southern states
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Sharecropper
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Farmer who works land owned by another and is required to give the landowner a set percentage of the harvest; what many former slaves became after the Civil War
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Home Rule
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Local self-government
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Contraband
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property that can be held by an opposing nation during a time of war
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Henry Clay
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A northern American politician who developed The Great Compromise
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John Brown
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Abolitionist who was hanged after leading the unsuccessful Harper’s Ferry Raid
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Charles Sumner
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Abolitionist senator whose verbal attack on the South provoked a physical assault that severely injured him
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Horace Greeley
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Owner of the New York Tribune who founded the Republican Party
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Abraham Lincoln
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President of the US who was in power during the secession of Southern states. Passed the 13th Amendment and began the Reconstruction after the Civil War
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Dred Scott
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American slave who sued his master for keeping him enslaved in a territory where slavery was banned under the MO Compromise; court ruling declared the MO Compromise to be unconstitutional
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Roger Taney
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chief justice of the supreme court who wrote an opinion in the 1857 Dred Scott case that declared the Missouri compromise unconstitutional
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Andrew Johnson
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President who seceded Lincoln after his assassination. Continued Lincoln’s Reconstruction but was eventually tried to impeachment due to his lack of progress
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Ulysses S. Grant
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American general and the eighteenth President of the United States; was the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
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Stephen Douglas
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Author of the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Freeport Doctrine, argues in favor of popular sovereignty
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Thaddeus Stevens
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Radical Republican who believed in harsh punishments for the South; leader of the Radical Republicans in Congress.

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