US History Study Guide Unit 3

Fugitive Slave Act
a law that made it a crime to help runaway slaves; allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slaveholders

Compromise of 1850
Includes California admitted as a free state, the Fugitive Slave Act, Made popular sovereignty in most other states from Mexican- American War

Uncle Tom’s Cabin
Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1853 that highly influenced england’s view on the American Deep South and slavery. a novel promoting abolition. intensified sectional conflict.

Dred-Scott decision
A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn’t sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.

Kansas-Nebraska Act/”Bleeding Kansas”
Stephen Douglas proposed, that the government organize lands north of the 36’30” line and make them the Kansas-Nebraska territories so that railroads could be built. Popular sovereignty would decide if they were slave or free. Nebraska became free but there was a civil war in Kansas. 200 people were killed in Kansas over the issue of slavery. Two governments were formed, 1 pro-slavery and 1 against slavery. The important event was that John Brown killed 5 pro-slavery people at Pottawatomie Creek.

John Browns Raid
an arsenal was taken over in Harpers Farry Virginia to give weapons to give to slaves in hopes to start a rebellion.

Election of 1860
Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union.

Fort Sumter
Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War

Emancipation Proclamation
Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free

a large battle in the American Civil War, took place in southern Pennsylvania from July 1 to July 3, 1863. The battle is named after the town on the battlefield. Union General George G. Meade led an army of about 90,000 men to victory against General Robert E. Lee’s Confederate army of about 75,000. It’s the most famous battle because of its large size, high cost in lives, location in a northern state, and the cause of President Abraham Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address.

the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Northern soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with almost 23,000 casualties. After this “win” for the North, Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation

13th Amendment
This amendment freed all slaves without compensation to the slaveowners. It legally forbade slavery in the United States.

14th Amendment
This amendment declared that all persons born or naturalized in the United States were entitled equal rights regardless of their race, and that their rights were protected at both the state and national levels.

15th Amendment
Ratified 1870. One of the “Reconstruction Amendments”. Provided that no government in the United States shall prevent a citizen from voting based on the citizen’s race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

Civil Rights Act of 1866
Passed by Congress on 9th April 1866 over the veto of President Andrew Johnson. The act declared that all persons born in the United States were now citizens, without regard to race, color, or previous condition.

Ku Klux Klan
White-supremacist group formed by six former Conferedate officers after the Civil War. Name is essentially Greek for “Circle of Friends”. Group eventually turned to terrorist attacks on blacks. The original Klan was disbanded in 1869, but was later resurrected by white supremacists in 1915.

Jim Crow laws
Limited rights of blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights

“Myth of the lost cause”
attempt to explain and justify the loss to the North. Religious ideology was heavily employed in order to argue that, although the South suffered a military defeat, it nevertheless achieved a moral victory.

Lynching (& it’s justifications)
The practice of an angry mob hanging a percieved criminal without regard to due process. This would happen in the South to blacks who did not behave as the inferiors to whites.

separation of people based on racial, ethnic, or other differences

The removal of voting rights or other rights of citizenship, either temporarily or permanently, through economic, political, or legal means.

Military Reconstruction Acts of 1867
Restart reconstruction in the 10 southern states that refused to ratify the 14th amendment; divide the 10 unreconstructed states into 5 military districts; all voters had to be allowed to vote for delegates to create new state constituions; these constitutions had to agree to equal rights for all citizens but allowed AA to vote

Upper South VS Lower South
The Upper South sold slaves to the Lower South. Many people from the Upper South migrated to the Lower South because it had better land for growing cotton. The two were united over slavery.

Controversy and the Compromise in Election of 1876
The controversy was the the person who lost had won the popular vote, but lost the electoral vote.

Plessy VS Ferguson
(1896) The Court ruled that segregation was not discriminatory (did not violate black civil rights under the Fourteenth Amendemnt) provide that blacks received accommodations equal to those of whites.