University of Colorado CHEM 1011 Flashcard

Four steps for the Scientific Approach
Observations>Hypothesis>
Experiment>Model(Theory)>
Further experimentation
Scientific Theory
Best current explanation for various phenomena
Scientific Model
Explains complicated phenomena using tangible items or pictures to represent invisible processes
Scientific Law:
universal explanation of specific phenomena
Layers of the Atmosphere, bottom to top
Troposphere>Stratosphere>
Mesosphere>Thermosphere
What happens to temperature in the Troposphere?
Decreases with elevation
What happens to temperature in the Stratosphere?
Increases with temp due to Ozone
What is the relationship of Polar Stratospheric Clouds to the atmosphere
Catalyze reactions which rapidly destroy the ozone layer
What is Matter?
anything that has mass and volume
What is mass?
measure of the quantity of matter in an object
what is weight?
measure of the gravitational force between two objects. Varies with strength of gravitational force
What are physical properties?
characteristics shown by a substance without interacting with another substance
What are Chemical properties?
Properties that show as it interacts with, or transforms into, other substances
List some physical properties:
Temp, mass, structure, color, taste, odor, boiling point, freezing point, heat capacity, hardness, conductivity, solubility, density
Describe some chemical properties
rusting, burning, tarnishing, exploding, neon: just sits there, it’s inert.
Physical or chemical change: No change in the type or arrangement of atoms in the substance
Physical: ice melting, sugar dissolving
Physical or Chemical: Change in the type and/or arrangement of atoms
chemical: rusting, water from H and O
Physical states of matter, and their properties
Solid>definite shape and volume.
Liquid>definite volume
Gas>neither definite volume or shape
Element
-Simplest type of substance with unique physical and chemical properties
-Consist of only one type of atom
-cannot be broken down into any simpler substances by physical or chemical means
Molecule
Consists of two or more atoms that are chemically bound together
-behaves as an independent unit
Compound
-A substance composed of two or more elements which are chemically combined
Mixture
-a group or two or more elements and/or compounds that are physically intermingled
Substance
definite fixed compositions that do not vary from sample to sample. e.g. pure water
mixture
have composition that varies from sample to sample. e.g. seawater
heterogeneous mixture
has one or more visible boundaries between the components
Homogeneous mixtures
have no visible boundaries because the components are mixed as individual atoms, ions, and molecules
solution
a homogeneous mixture. solutions in water are called aqueous solutions
What are the base units of measurement for length, mass, time, and temp?
meter, kilogram, second, degrees Celsius
Exponential numbers: (symbol)
10^-1
deci (d)
Exponential numbers: (symbol)
10^-2
centi (c)
Exponential numbers: (symbol)
10^-3
milli (m)
Exponential numbers: (symbol)
10^-6
micro (u)
Exponential numbers: (symbol)
10^-9
nano- (n)
Exponential numbers: (symbol)
10^-12
pico- (p)
Exponential numbers: (symbol) All at once!
Kilo-
deci-
centi-
milli-
micro-
nano-
pico-
10^3 (k)
10^-1 (d)
10^-2 (c)
10^-3 (m)
10^-6 (u)
10^-9 (n)
10^-12 (p)
What is density?
quantity of mass (m) per unit volume (v)

d=m/V

Describe Energy
-typically accompanies physical or chemical changes
-Released during some chemical reactions
-Required to make something happen that otherwise would not
What is heat?
-heat is energy that flows from a warmer object to a cooler one
What is temperature?
The measure of how hot or cold an object is. Temp in K= temp in C+273

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