Unit 8: DNA vs PROTEIN SYNTHESIS – STUDY GUIDE

1. Name the 2 types of nucleic Acid. (include real name and abbreviation).
DNA- Deoxyribonucleic Acid
RNA- Ribonucleic acid
2.) where is DNA found in the cell
Nucleus
3.) Why is DNA called the code of life
All genetic information for the body
4.) True or false is DNA the same in every organelle
False
5.) Name two functions a DNA
1.) Transcription
2.) Translation
6.) How did Watson and crick this guy doing a shape
Double helix and twisted ladder
7.) DNA is made up a long chains of
Nucleartides
8.) What are the relationships between DNA genes and chromosomes
Chromosomes contain genes in sections. Genes are coded by DNA
9.) Name three parts that make up a DNA nucleartides
Sugar Molecules phosphate and bases (A T C G)
10.) What connects the two sides of DNA molecules
Hydrogen bonds which are weak
11.) Name the four bases that make up DNA
Adenine
Thymine
Cytosine
Guanine
12.) Which of the four bases complement each other
A-T C-G
13.) The process of making a copy of DNA is called
Replications
(Semi-conservative)
14.). When does this process occur in cell division
Interphase S-phase
15.) If one side of DNA is CG AA GCC TAT what does the other side of DNA look like
gcttcggata
16.) Is a mistake occurs during DNA replication what is it called
Mutation
17.) What is the cause a mutation
Errors in Mitosis or mutagen
19.) Insertion
Addition of base: TAG=TAAG
20.) Deletion
Deletion of base: TAG=TG
21.) Point mutation
Change on one base: TAG=TAA
22.) Inversion
Sequence is reverse: TAG=GAT
23.) Duplication
Sections or entire chromosomes are duplicated: TAG=TAGTAG
24.) Translation
Sections of chromosomes are switched to cross chromosome: TAG=CAG
CAT=TAT
25.) Where in the cell is RNA found
Cytoplasm
26.) Describe the three differences between RNA and DNA
1.) Uracil instead of Thymine
2.) 1 strand versus 2 strand
3.) Ribose instead of deoxyribose
27.) Name the four bases and make up RNA
Uracil-Adenine Cytosine-Guanine
28.) Which type of RNA carries the genetic code from DNA to the ribosome
mRNA (Messenger)
29.) Which type of RNA is part of the ribosome
rRNA (Ribosomal)
30.) Which type of RNA carries specific amino acid from the cytoplasm to the mRNA to form the protein chain
tRNA (transport amino acid’s)
31.) The production of proteins from the DNA is called
Protein synthesis= transcription + translation
32.) The 20 different building blocks of proteins are called
Amino acid
33.) How many amino acids make up a protein chain
3 Or more
34.) The part of protein synthesis where DNA is rewritten into RNA is called
Transcription
35.) The part of the protein synthesis where proteins is made mRNA from with the help of tRNA is called
Translation
36.) What determines the sequence of amino acid from the protein synthesis
mRNA
37.) A singlets of three bases in a form mRNA strand makes up genetic code word is called
Codon
38.) Each codon code for a specific what
Amino acid
40.) AUG
UAA
CGA
MET
Stop
ARG
41.) AGC
GCC
CCU
Thr
Ala
Pro
42.) What does tRNA Carrie
Amino acid
43.) A sequence of 3 bases are called
Anti-codon
44.) Is the mRNA codons are auc uuc guc acu uag then what do the anti-codons look like
auc aag cag uga auc
45.) What must be reached for protein synthesis to stop what three mRNA bases make up this
Stop codon
uaa uag uga
46.) Mutations is gametes can cause genetic disorders how
Yes if there is a chromosome air is passed on to offspring
47.) What does the term “no disjunction” mean when does it happen
It means chromosomes don’t separate properly and meiosis
48.) What is genetic engineering
Altering an organisms DNA
49.) What is cloning
Making and exact replication of a organism