Unit 4 Section D Vocabulary Flashcard

primary air pollutant
a contaminant that directly enters the atmosphere; it is not initially formed by reactions of airborne substances
secondary air pollutant
a contaminant generated in the atmosphere by chemical reactions between primary air pollutants and natural components of air
particulate pollution
air contaminants made up of small particles suspended in the atmosphere
synthetic substances
a substance produced solely by human activity
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
synthetic substances previously used as aerosol propellants, cooling fluids, and cleaning solvents; CFDs lead to stratospheric ozone destruction through production of chlorine radicals
a potentially hazardous combination of smoke and fog
photochemical smog
a potentially hazardous mixture of secondary pollutants formed by solar irradiation of certain primary pollutants in the presence of oxygen
electrostatic precipitation
a pollution-control method in which combustion waste products are electorally charged and then collected on plates of opposite electric charge
mechanical filtering
a pollution-control method in which the combustion of waste products passes into filters that trap particles too large to pass through
scrubbing, wet
a pollution-control method involving an aqueous solution that removes particles and sulfur oxides from industrial combustion processes
collision theory
for a reaction to occur, reactant molecules must collide in proper orientation with sufficient kinetic energy
activation energy
the minimum energy required for the successful collision of reactant particles in a chemical reaction
catalytic converter
the reaction chamber in an auto exhaust system designed to accelerate the conversion of potentially harmful exhaust gases to nitrogen gas, carbon dioxide, and water vapor
free radical
atoms or molecules with unstable arrangements and numbers of electrons
ozone hole
a region of significant thinning of the stratospheric ozone layer; it occurs seasonally, most prominently over the South Pole

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