Unit 3 Study Guide Answer Key

Holy Land
Jerusalem and other places in Palestine where Christians believe Jesus had lived and preached.

Holy Roman Empire
empire of west central Europe from 962 to 1806, comprising present-day Germany and neighboring lands

Clovis
King of the Franks, who converted to Christianity

Charles Martel
Leader of the Franks at the battle of Tours

Charlemagne
emperor who united much of Western Europe into Christian kingdom

Benedict
monk who instituted the Benedictine Rule for regulating monastic life

Ferdinand and Isabella
Ferdinand and Isabella
their marriage created the unified state of Spain; used harsh policies to rid Spain of Muslims and Jews in order to make it a completely Christian state

Franks
a Germanic tribe that conquered present day France and neighboring lands in the 400s

Frederick Barbarossa
Frederick Barbarossa
the Holy Roman emperor Frederick I called Frederick Barbarossa or “Red Beard” who tried to build an empire from the Baltic to Adriatic seas

Joan of Arc
Joan of Arc
17 year-old French peasant woman inspired by visions to lead France into victory over England during the Hundreds Years War. Captured by the English who tried her for witchcraft and burned her at the stake

King John
King John
English king who was clever, cruel, and untrustworthy

Knight
Knight
a European noble who served as a mounted warrior

Pope Innocent III
Pope Innocent III
claimed papal supremacy, helped Church reach height of its power.

Pope Urban II
Pope Urban II
called for the First Crusade

serf
serf
in Medieval Europe, a peasant bound to the lord’s land

St. Francis of Assisi
St. Francis of Assisi
founder of Franciscan order of friars

Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
scholar who used scholasticism to reconcile faith and reason

vassal
vassal
in Medieval Europe, a lord who was granted land in exchange for service and loyalty to greater lord

Vikings
Vikings
Scandinavian peoples whose sailors raided Europe from the 700’s through the 1100’s

Black Death
Black Death
an epidemic of the bubonic plague that ravaged Europe in the 1300’s

Crusades
Crusades
a series of wars from the 1000’s through 1200’s in which European Christians tried to win control of the Holy Land from Muslims.

Hundred Years War
Hundred Years War
a series of conflicts between England and France from 1337 to 1453 over rights to certain lands and the English Channel

Inquisition
Inquisition
a Church court set up to try people accused of heresy

Reconquista
Reconquista
during the 1400’s, the campaign by European Christians to drive the Muslims from present-day Spain

Common Law
a legal system based on customs and court rulings

due process of law
the requirement that the government act fairly and in accordance with established rules in all that it does

feudal contract
exchange of pledges between lords and vassals

feudalism
feudalism
loosely organized system of government in which local lords government their own lands but owed military service and other support to a greater lord.

fief
fief
in Medieval Europe, an estate granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for service and loyalty

jury
jury
legal group of people sworn to make a decision in a legal case

inflation
inflation
economic cycle that involves a rapid rise in price linked to sharp increase in the amount of money available

lay investiture
lay investiture
appointment of bishops by anyone who is a member of the clergy

Magna Carta
the Great Charter approved by King John of England in 1215; it limited royal power and established certain rights of English freeman

Parliament
the legislature of England, and later of Great Britain

chivalry
code of conduct for knights during the Middle Ages

excommunication
exclusion from the Roman Catholic Church as a penalty for refusing to obey church law

flying buttresses
stone supports on the outside of a building that allowed builders to construct higher, thinner walls that contained large stained-glass windows

Gothic style
type of European architecture that developed in the Middle Ages, characterized by flying buttresses, ribbed vaulting, thin walls, and high roofs.

Manor
during the Middle Ages in Europe, a lord’s estate which included one or more villages and surrounding lands

papal supremacy
the claim of medieval popes that they had authority over all secular rulers

scholasticism
in Medieval Europe, the school of thought that used logic and reason to support Christian belief

secular
having to do with worldly, rather than religious, matters; nonreligious

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