Unit 3 Section B Vocabulary Flashcard

fossil fuel
a fuel (such as coal, petroleum, or natural gas) believed formed from plant or animal remains buried under Earth’s surface for millions of years
potential energy
energy associated with position
kinetic energy
energy associated with the motion of an object
chemical energy
energy stored in the chemical bonds of substances
thermal energy
the energy a material possesses due to its temperature; also informally called heat
a process that requires the addition of energy
a process that involves the release of energy
Law of Conservation of Energy
energy can change form but cannot be created or destroyed in any chemical reaction or physical change
specific heat capacity
the quantity of thermal energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 g of a material by 1 degree C; the expression commonly has units of 1/(g degree C)
heat of combustion
the thermal energy released when a specific quantity of a material burns
molar heat of combustion
the quantity of thermal energy released from burning one mole of a substance
the process by which hydrocarbon molecules from petroleum are converted to smaller molecules, using thermal energy and a catalyst
a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction but is itself unchanged
octane rating
a measure of the combustion quality of gasoline compared to the combustion quality of isooctane; the higher the number, the higher the octane rating; also called octane
oxygenated fuels
a fuel with oxygen-containing additives, such as methanol, that increase the octane rating and reduce harmful emissions

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