Unit 3 Section A Vocabulary Flashcard

hydrocarbons
a molecule composed only of carbon and hydrogen atoms
distillation
a process that separates liquid substances based on differences in their boiling points
distillate
the condensed products of distillation
fractional distillation
a process of separating a mixture into its components b boiling and condensing the components
fraction
a.) a mixture of petroleum-based substances with similar boiling points and other properties;
b.) one of the distillate portions collected during distillation
intermolecular forces
forces of attraction among molecules
carbon chain
carbon atoms chemically linked to one another, forming a chainlike molecular structure
shells
energy levels surrounding an atom’s nucleus within which one or more electrons reside; outer-shell electrons are commonly called valence electrons
valence electrons
electrons in the outermost shell of an atom; these relatively loosely held electrons often participate in bonding with other atoms or molecules
covalent bond
a linkage between two atoms involving the sharing of one pair (single bond), two pairs (double bond), or three pairs (triple bond) of electrons
single covalent bond
a bond in which two electrons are shared by the two bonded atoms
electron-dot formulas, Lewis structure, Lewis dot structures
the representation of atoms, ions and molecules where valence-electron dots surround each atom’s symbol; it is useful for indicating covalent bonding
structural formula
a chemical formula showing the arrangement of atoms and covalent bonds in a molecule, in which each electron in a covalent bond is represented by a line between the symbols of two atoms
alkanes
a hydrocarbon containing only single covalent bonds
tetrahedron
a regular triangular pyramid; the four bonds of each carbon atom in an alkane point to the covers of a tetrahedron
condensed formulas
a chemical formula that provides additional information about bonding: for example, the condensed formula for propane, C3H8, is CH3-CH2-CH3 or CH3CH2CH3
straight-chain alkane
an alkane consisting of molecules in which each carbon atom is linked to no more than two other carbon atoms
branched-chain alkane
an alkane in which at least one carbon atom is bonded to three or four other carbon atoms
structural isomers
substances involving rearrangement of atoms or bonds within a molecule bu sharing a common molecular formula

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