Unit 2 Section B Vocabulary Flashcard

atmosphere
a.) a unit of gas pressure;
b.) the gaseous envelope surrounding Earth, composed of four layers: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere
hydrosphere
all parts of Earth where water is found, including oceans, clouds, ice caps, glaciers, lakes, rivers, and underground water supplies
lithosphere
the solid outer layer of Earth, which also includes land areas under oceans and other bodies of water
ore
a rock or other solid material from which it is profitable to recover a mineral containing a metal or other useful substances
mineral
a naturally occurring solid substance commonly removed from ores to obtain a particular element of interest or value;
ductility
a property of a material that permits it to be stretched into a wire without breaking
activity series
the ranking of elements in order of chemical reactivity
reduction
any process in which one or more electrons can be considered as gained by a chemical species
oxidized
any process in which one or more electrons can be considered as lost by a chemical species
oxidation-reduction reactions
a chemical reaction in which oxidation and reduction simultaneously occur
electrometallugy
the use of electrical energy to add electrons to metal ions, thus reducing them
pyrometallurgy
the use of high temperatures (thermal energy) to process metals or their ores
hydrometallurgy
the industrial extraction of metals from ores at ordinary temperatures by water-based processes
electron-dot structure, Lewis dot structure, dot structure
the representation of atoms, ions, and molecules where valence-electron dots surround each atom;s symbol; it is useful for indicating covalent bonding
oxidizing agent
a species that causes another atom molecule, or ion to become oxidized; the oxidizing agent becomes reduced in this process

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member