Unit 1B-Looking at Water and Its Contaminants Flashcard

matter
anything that occupies space and has mass
physical properties
properties that can be observed and measured without changing the chemical makeup of the substance (ex: density, color, boiling point
density
mass per unit of volume, density of water = 1 g/mL
freezing point
100 degrees Celsius/32 degrees Fahrenheit for water
aqueous solution
solution where water is the solvent
mixture
two or more substances combined, but the substances retain their individual properties
heterogeneous mixture
mixture where the composition is not uniform throughout
suspension
heterogeneous mixture in which the solid particles are large enough to settle out or can be separated by filtration
Tyndall effect
scattering of light
colloid
heterogeneous mixture in which the particles are small enough to remain suspended in the solution and don’t settle out
homogeneous mixture
mixture that is uniform throughout
solution
homogeneous mixture that light can pass through, particles are fully dissolved
solute
substance being dissolved in a solution
solvent
substance doing the dissolving in a solution
particulate level
visualizing on the level of atoms and molecules
atoms
building blocks of matter, smallest particle of an element
element
matter that is made up of only one kind of atom
compound
substance that is composed of atoms of two or more elements bonded together
chemical formula
element symbols and subscripts to denote the # of atoms of each element in a compound
substance
elements or compounds, having a uniform and definite composition
molecule
two or more atoms bonded together
macroscopic
large scale objects visible with the naked eye
chemical symbol
letters that represent each element
periodic table of the elements
organized chart that depicts all known elements
subscript
number written below the normal line of letters, indicates how many atoms of the element just to the left are in the substance
chemical equation
reactants and products involved in a chemical reaction
chemical reaction
breaking and forming of chemical bonds, causing atoms to become rearranged and new substances formed
reactants
starting substances in a chemical reactions
products
ending substances in a chemical reaction
diatomic molecule
elements that exist as two atoms bonded together (HONClBrIF)
electron
negatively charged particle that makes up atoms
protons
positively charged particle in the nucleus of an atom
neutrons
neutral particle in the nucleus of an atom
ion
charged atom formed by gaining or losing electrons
ionic compound
substance formed by the attraction between positive and negative ions
cation
positively charged ion, created by losing electrons
anion
negatively charged ion, created by gaining electrons
polyatomic ion
group of bonded atoms that acts as a unit
precipitate
appearance of an insoluble solid during a chemical reaction
qualitative test
test that confirms the presence of absence of a substance
quantitative test
test that determines the amount of a substance
reference solution
solution that contains the substance of interest to be used as a positive test

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