Unit 11 – Chemistry Flashcard

Absorption rate constant

value describing how much drug is absorbed perunit of time

bioavailability

the amont of drug in the formulation that the system of the patient can absorb

Biophase

the site of interaction between the drug molecule and its receptor

C-max

maximum plasma level of drug

Compartment

a pharmacokinetic term for the drug concentration, C and the volume of distribution of that drug

First-order kinetics

 

the rate of change of plasma drug drug concentration that is dependant on  the concentration itself; that is a constant proportion of drug is removed with time

LADME

acronym fo the time course of drug distribution:liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination

Liberation

the process of drug release from the dosage form

MEC,MIC

the minimum effective concentration, or the minimum inhibitory concentration for a drug to be active. Drug is effective at any level above this value

Michaelis-Menten  kinetics

a method of transforming drug plasma levels into a linear relationship using the parameters of drug concentraions and a constant K(m)

Peak method of dosing

a method whereby the drug must reach a specified maximum level to be effective

Pharmokinetics

the “quantitative” study of drug dispostion in the body

Prodrug

a parent compound that is usually not active and must be mateabolized to the active form

Steady State

A condition in which drug input and drug output are equal

This is obtained when after multiple dosing, the peak and the trough conventration after eac dose oscillate within a certain range

slow release

a dosage form of drug that allows the drug to be slowly placed into solution

t max

the time of maximum drug concentration

Therapeutic window

a term describing a bellshaped response curve of drug level versus pharmacological response

Trough concentration

the lowest drug concentration reached, suually before the next dose is given

Zero-order kinetics

the rate of change of plasma concentration, independent of the plasma concentration, a constant amount is eliminated per unit of time

zero-time blood level

a hypothetical blood concentration obtained by extrapolation back to the initial or zero, time of administration. Usually this yields a maximal value.

Phenobarbitol

An antiepilepitc

it reduces excitability of entire nerve cells (sedative) binds to albumin (may have a worry of competitive binding)

phenytoin

Antiepileptic drug

minimizes epileptic seizures

prolongs synaptic inactivation

Primadone

Antiepileptic drug

prolongs synaptic inactivation

Carbamazepine

Antiepileptic drug

 used to treat trigemital myalgia

is a metabolite of phenobarbitol

works to prolong synaptic inactivation

Digoxin

Caridoactive drug

increases the force and velocity of cardiac contraction thereby decreasing conduction velocity through av node essentially slowing the heart rate

Lidocaine

Cardioactive drug

prevents ventricular arrythmias (irregular heartbeats)

ie. stabilizes heart rate

Quinidine

Cardioactive drug

Anti malarial drug used to treat malaria

decreases muscle excitability

Procainamide and N-Acetylprocainamide (NAPA)

Cardioactive drug

both work together to control cardiac arrythmeas

theophylline (thiobromides)

Brochodilator drug

CNS stimulants, keeps you awake

 

Relxes bronchial smoothe muscles and blood vessels, stimulates respirations and strengthens cardiac muscle

Caffiene

Bronchiodilator drug

seen in many teas for centuries serves as a head ache pain releiver

 

relaxes obronchial smoothe muscles and blood vessels, stimulates reperation and strengthens cardiac muscles

Amino glycosides

Antibiotic drug

inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by disruption of mRNA tsl

drugs ending in ycin

antibiotics

treat gram negative

inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by disruption of mRNA tsl

Chloramphenicol

Antibiotic drug

used to treat gram neg bacteria

unkown MOA

Lithium

Antipsychotic drug

used for manic depressive disorders

MOA not understood

Tricyclics

Amitriptyline- Nortriptyline

Imipramine- Desipramine

Antidepressants

act by blocking uptake of nor-epinephrine and seratonin by presynaptic nerve endings prolonging time of nerve transport  transmission,

exact methods not understood

variable patient response

Methotrexate

Antineoplastic drug

used to treat cancers (non specific cytotoxin)

inhibits dna synthesis

Cyclosporine

Immunosuppressant drug

supppresses graph vs host disease

inhibits proliferation of lymphs, inhibits IL2 which blocks T-cell activation

Tacrolimus (FK-506)

 Immunosuppressant

inhibtis lymph proliferation

T-cells dont proliferate

Salicylate

Analgesics

component drug in aspirin

serves as a pain killer

unknow method of action

Acetaminophen

Analgesic

similar to salicylate, has less side effects

unknow mode of action

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