Unit 1 Section C Vocabulary Flashcard

saturated solution
a solution in which the solvent has dissolved as much solute as it can retain stably at a specified temperature
solubility
the quantity of a substance that will dissolve in a given quantity of solvent to form a saturated solution at a particular temperature
solubility curve
a graph indicating the solubility of a particular solute at different temperatures
unsaturated solution
a solution containing a lower concentration of solute than a saturated solution contains at a specified temperature
supersaturated solution
a solution containing a higher concentration of solute than a saturated solution at a specified temperature
polar molecule
a molecule with regions of partial positive and negative charge resulting from the uneven distribution of electrical charge
solution concentration
the quantity of solute dissolved a a specific quantity of solvent or solution
percent composition
the percent by mass of each component in a material; or, specifically, the percent by mass of each element within a compound
parts per million (ppm)
an expression of concentration; the number of units of solute found in one million units of solution
parts per billion (ppb)
an expression of concentration; the number of units of solute found in one billion units of solution
heavy-metal ions
ions of heavy metals; these tend to be harmful to living matter
Green Chemistry
the design of chemical products and processes that require fewer resources and less energy and that reduces or eliminates reliance on and generation of hazardous substances
pH
an expression of the acidic or basic character of a solution; at 25 °C, solutions with pH values lower than 7 are acidic, solutions above 7 are basic, and neutral solutions equal 7; pH is based on a solution’s hydrogen ion (H+ or H3O+) concentration
alkaline
a basic solution containing an excess of hydroxide ions (OH)
acids
ions or compounds that produce hydrogen ions, H+ (or hydronium ions, H3O+), when dissolved in water
bases
ions or compounds that produce OH ions when dissolved in water
molecular substances
a substance composed of molecules, such as H2O and CH4
electronegativity
an expression of the tendency of an atom to attract shared electrons within a chemical bond

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