Unit 1 Section B Vocabulary Flashcard

matter
anything that has mass and occupies space
physical properties
a property that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the sample of matter
density
the mass per unit volume of a given material that is often expressed a g/cm3
freezing point
the temperature at which a liquid turns into a solid; it is the same value as its melting point
aqueous solution
a solution in which water is the solvent
mixture
a combination of materials in which each material retains its separate identity
heterogeneous mixture
a mixture that is not uniform throughout
suspension
a mixture containing large, dispersed solid particles that can settle out or be separated by filtration.
Tyndall effect
the scattering of a beam of light caused by reflection from suspended particles
colloid
a mixture containing solid particles small enough to remain suspended and not settle out
homogeneous mixture
a mixture that is uniform throughout; in other words, a solution
solution
a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
solute
the dissolved species in a solution; the solute is usually the smaller component in a solution.
solvent
the dissolving agent in a solution; the solvent is usually the larger component in a solution.
particulate level
the realm of unseen atoms, molecules, and ions in contrast to observable macroscopic entities
atoms
the smallest particle possessing the properties of an element
elements
the fundamental chemical substances from which all other substances are made
compound
a substance composed of two or more elements bonded together in fixed proportions; a compound cannot be broken down into simpler substances by physical means
substance
an element or compound; that is, a material with a uniform, definite composition and distinct properties
molecule
the smallest particle of a substance retaining all the properties of that substance
macroscopic
large enough to be seen by an unaided eye
chemical symbols
an abbreviation of an element’s name, such a N for nitrogen or Fe for iron.
periodic table of the elements
an arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic number, such that elements with similar properties are located in the same vertical column (group)
chemical formula
a symbolic expression representing the elements contained in a substance, together with subscripts that indicate the relative numbers of atoms of each element.
subscript
the number printed below the line of type indicating the total atoms of a given element in a chemical formula.
chemical equation
a symbolic expression summarizing a chemical reaction, such as 2 H2 (g) + O2 (g) -> 2 H2O (g)
chemical reactions
the process of forming new substances from reactants the involves the breaking and forming of chemical bonds
reactants
starting materials in a chemical reaction
products
substances formed in a chemical reaction
diatomic molecules
a molecule made up of two atoms, such as chlorine gas, Cl2, or carbon monoxide, CO
protons
a particle possessing a positive electrical charge that is found in the nuclei of all atoms; the total protons in an element’s atom equals its atomic number
electrons
a particle possessing a negative electrical charge; electrons surround the nuclei of atoms
neutrons
a particle without electrical charge; found in the nucleus of an atom
ions
electrically charged atoms or groups of atoms; negative ions are called anions, and positive ions are called cations
ionic compound
a substance composed of positive and negative ions
anion
a negatively charges ion
cation
a positively charged ion
confirming tests
a laboratory test giving a positive result if a particular chemical species is present
precipitate
an insoluble solid substance that has separated from a solution
qualitative tests
a chemical test indicating the presence or absence of an element, ion, or compound in a sample
quantitative tests
a chemical test indicating the amount or concentration of an element, ion, or compound in a sample
reference solution
a solution of known composition used as a comparison in chemical tests
data
objective pieces of information, such as information gathered in a laboratory investigation

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