Unit 1 – Chemistry Flashcard

Matter
Physical material of the universe.
Chemistry
The study of the properties of matter and the changes it undergoes.
Elements
Main constituents of matter. Atoms constitute elements.
Molecules
Collection of atoms chemically bonded. Each molecule has its own distinctive
identity and thereby properties, which are related to both the atoms involved and their 3-D shape. Atoms combine in definite proportions to make molecules, for example water (H2O) is the result of the combination of 2 hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.
Molecules
Collection of atoms chemically bonded. Each molecule has its own distinctive
identity and thereby properties, which are related to both the atoms involved and their 3-D shape. Atoms combine in definite proportions to make molecules, for example water (H2O) is the result of the combination of 2 hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.
Physical Change
Any that does not affect the identity of a substance, for example: changes of state (gas to solid, etc), dissolving sugar in water, etc.
Chemical Change
Any change that involves the transformation of a substance into other(s), for example: explosion of TNT, decomposition of meat, digestion of food within the digestive system, etc.
Chemical Formula
Representation of a chemical entity according to the amount and proportion of atoms that constitutes it.
Chemical Equation
A representation using chemical formulas to identify and quantify substances involved in a chemical reaction
The chemical states of matter.
Gas, Liquid, Solid
Pure Substance
Matter with fixed composition in a pure form. Elements (Gold, Silver, etc) and compounds (water, ethanol, etc).
Mixture
Combination of two or more pure substances.
Homogeneous
if uniform throughout, example: air, blood, soda pop, etc.
Heterogeneous
If mixture is not uniform. Example: sand, salads, orange
juice with pulp, etc.
Physical Properties of Matter
These can be measure without changing the substance. Example: density, color, boiling temperature, freezing temperature, etc.
Chemical Properties of Matter
Describe how a substance changes (reacts transforms) to form other substance. Example: flammability, acidity, oxidant, etc.
Dalton’s Atomic Theory
Elements are composed of atoms, all atoms of an element are identical, atoms do not change their identity in chemical reactions, compounds are formed when atoms of different elements combine.
Law of Definite Proportions: Law of Constant Composition
The relative kinds and number of atoms are constant for a given compound.
Law of Multiple Proportions
If two elements A and B combine to form more than one compound, then the mass of B that combines with the mass of A is the ration of small whole numbers.
Millikan
Oil drop experiment. Determined charge of an electron and the mass of an electron.
Thompson
First model of the atom. Plum pudding model.
Becquerel
Some substances emit radiation spontaneously.
Rutherford
Model with protons and a nucleus and electrons moving around it.
Chadwick
Discovered neutrons which are in the nucleus.
Group 1
Alkali Metals (except H)
Group 2
Alkaline earth metals
Group 3-12 are transition metals
Group 16
Chalcogens
Group 17
Halogens
Group 18
Noble Gasses
Carbonate
CO3 -2
Bicarbonate
HCO3 –
Sulfate
SO4 -2
Nitrate
NO3 –
Phosphate
PO4 -3
Chlorate
ClO3 –

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