U.S. History Chapter 8 Study Guide

Industrial Revolution
an ongoing effort over many decades to increase production by using machines rather than the power of humans or animals.

Interchangeable Parts
a system in which all parts are made to an exact standard.

Cotton Gin
a machine that separates the seeds from raw cotton fibers.

Patent
a license from the government giving an inventor the sole right to make, use, and sell an invention for a
certain period of time.

Market Revolution
the change in the way Americans made, bought, and sold goods.

Manufacturing
the use of machinery to make products

Centralized
a single facility where all the tasks involved in making a product were carried out.

Free Enterprise System
an economic system in which private companies compete for profits.

Specialization
a system in which each worker performs just one part of an entire production process.

Investment Capital
money that a business spends in hopes of future gain.

Bank Note
a piece of paper that banks issued to their customers.

Section
regions in the nation that were divided into the North and the South.

Rural
areas made up of farms and countryside instead of cities.

Urban
cities that were home to factories.

Industrialization
the development of industry.

Tenements
crowded apartments with poor standards of sanitation, safety, and comfort.

Strike
a work stoppage

Labor Union
an organization of workers formed to protect the interests of its members.

Cotton Belt
a band of states stretching from South Carolina to Texas, which relied mostly on cotton.

Turner’s Rebellion
a rebellion led by Nat Turner when 70 slaves went on raids on white families in SE Virginia.

Dartmouth College v. Woodward
a 1819 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that states could not interfere with private contracts.

McCulloch v. Maryland
a 1819 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that Congress has the authority to take actions necessary to fulfill its constitutional duties.

Gibbons v. Ogden
a 1824 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that states could not regulate commerce on interstate waterways.

Monroe Doctrine
a declaration by President Monroe in 1823 that the United States would oppose efforts by any outside power to control a nation in the Western Hemisphere.

American System
a combination of government backed economic development and protective tariffs aimed at encouraging business growth.

Patronage
when newly elected officials had given government jobs to friends and supporters.

Spoils System
what Jackson’s enemies called patronage.

Tariff of 1828
a heavy tax on imports designed to boost American manufacturing.

Nullify
to reject.

States’ Rights
the powers that the Constitution neither gives to the federal government nor denies to the states.

Secede
to withdraw

Indian Removal Act
an act that authorized the President to give Native Americans land in parts of the Louisiana Purchase in exchange for land taken from them in the east.

Trail of Tears
the nightmarish journey of the Cherokees to the Oklahoma Territory.

Black Hawk War
a war led by Black Hawk of about 1,000 Indians back to their fertile valley in a peaceful effort to reclaim their land.

Second Seminole War
1835 war in which the Seminoles tried to retain their land.

Samuel Slater
inventor of the textile mill in America.

Eli Whitney
inventor of the Cotton Gin

Francis C. Lowell
made the 1st mechanized mill in MASS.

Sequoyah
Cherokee leader who invented the Cherokees’ own language.

Robert Fulton
invented the steam boat and steam shovel.

Samuel Morey
invented the internal combustion engine.

William Underwood
invented the 1st canning factory.

Andrew Jackson
7th President of the United States nicknamed Old Hickory.

John Quincy Adams
winner of the Corrupt Bargain election of ’24.

John C. Calhoun
V.P. during Jackson’s term; wanted to nullify the tariff of 1828.

Henry Clay
lowered the tariff because of his persistency.

William H. Crawford
ran for president from the south in 1824.

John Marshall
chief justice, died at the end of Jackson’s term.

Denmark Vesey and Nat Turner
both led slave rebellions.

Martin Van Buren
Jackson’s apprentice; president during the trail of tears.

Nicholas Biddle
president of the national bank.