trends of the periodictable Flashcard

bond energy
the energy required to break 1 mole of the bond in the gas phase
electromagnetic radiation
a type of energy embodied in oscillating electric and magnetic fields
quantum-mechanical model
explains how electrons exist in atoms and how those electrons determine the chemical and physical properties
frequency equation
v=c-speed of light/wavelength
order or light waves
radio, microwave, infrared,visible, uv, x-ray, gamma
equation for the energy of light is directly proportional to its frequency
E=hv
equation for the energy of a photon is inversely proportional to its wavelength
E=(hv)/wavelength
Stern-Gerlach experiment
demonstrates electron spin (ms), in experiment, they shoot a beam of silver atoms through a slit and then through a magnet, and count the number of electrons that hit a certain spot on a blank sheet
Pauli’s exclusion principal
each electron has to have 4 unique quantum numbers
Zeff (effective nuclear charge)
as you move to the right across a period, it increases. this results in smaller radii, because the pull on the electrons is greater. the Zeff is what the electron is “experiencing”.equals the actual nuclear charge – the number of core electrons
ionization energy
the energy it takes to remove an electron. is always +, because it takes energy to remove an electron. TREND: increases to the right, decreases going down. it is easier to remove an electron that is farther from the nucleus because it is held less tightly.
electron affinity
the energy associated with gaining an electron int he gaseous state. is more exothermic as you move to the right. when an atom gains an electron it releases energy. normally (-)
paramagnetic
has unpaired electrons. IS WEAKLY ATTRACTED TO AN EXTERNAL MAGNETIC FIELD
diamagnetic
all electrons are paired
*isoelectronics
nodes
nodes mean that it is a more complicated shape; higher energy
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
limits how well we know where an electron is. 6.63*10^-34
radical
reactive molecule

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