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empirical formula
expresses the smallest whole number ratio of atoms present
molecular formula
gives the actual numbers of each element present in the compound
molecular weight
the mass of one mole of the compound
formula weight
same as molecular weight, but ionic compounds dont exist as molecules
molar mass
another term for one mole of a compound, whatever it may be. F U mr adams…
how to calculate the empirical formula
1-get mass of each element in grams
2-divide by AM to get # of moles
3-dived the number of moles of each element by the smallest number of moles, if theyre all integers, they are the subs.
4-make them whole numbers if theyre not
how to calculate the molecular formula
1-multiply subs by molecular mass
2-divide molar mass by empirical mass
3-round up, and then multiply by subs again
soluble things
-nitrate(NO3), chlorate(ClO3), and acetates(C2H3O2)
-Na,K,and NH4 salts
-Cl, bromide and iodide salts without Ag.Pb,Hg
not soluble stuff
hydroxide(OH)and Sulfide(S) salts unless theyre with Na,K,or NH3 and moderately soluble with Ca,Ba,and Sr
carbonates(CO3),phosphates(PO4) salts unless with Na,K,or NH3
synthesis reaction

A and X can be elements or compounds

single replacement reaction
A+BX->AX+B or Y+BX->BY+X where A,B,X and Y are elements and AX, BX, and BY are compounds
double displacement reaction
AX+BY->AY+BX where A,B,X, and Y in the reactants are ions and AY and BX are ionic or molecular compounds
decomposition reaction
AX->A+X where AX is a compound, A and X can be elements or compounds
density equation
cannont be broken down by any chemical means into another substance
when two or more different elements unite to form a new substance
oxyanion series
ClO – hypochlrite
ClO2 – chloirite
ClO3 – chlorate
ClO4 – perchlorate
(all have a -1 charge)
balance: Na2O + H2O
Na2O + H2O -> 2NaOH
6.022 x 10^23
scientific notation
expresses a number as a product of a number between 1 and 10 and the appropriate power of 10
sig fig rules
integers are always sig…leading integers are never sig…captive zeroes are sig…trailing zeroes are sig if there is a decimal poin in the number…exact numbers and physical constants are treated as if infinitely sig.
atomic theory
william thompson
plum pudding model
gold foil experiment
mimitri mendeleev
first periodic table

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