THIS 2008 Final Review Flashcard

What makes Hydrogen stand out compared to the other Alkali metals?
it is a nonmetal & it gains electrons
List three characteristics of both Ionic bonds and Covalent bonds.
Ionic
1. gain or loses electrons
2. usually between metals & nonmetals
3. good electric conductor

Covalent
1. share electrons
2. not good conductors
3. brittle

What Group of metals is the softest?
Group 1
Higher the electronegativity the _______ the bond strength.
stronger
what is an alloy?
2 or more elements, usually metals.
Which group on the periodic table is the MOST stable?
Group 18- noble gases
What is the difference between an organic compound and an inorganic compound?
organic: 1 or more carbon atoms linked together in a chain.

inorganic: no chains of carbon

Which side of the periodic table usually loses electrons?
left
which side of the periodic table usually gains electrons?
right
What is Catenation?
tendency to form chains & rings of similar atoms
Tell whether each Compound is Ionic or Covalent then draw what the end result should look like.

1. N2
2. MgO
3. C3H6
4. K2O
5. S2
6. NaCl

1. N2- covalent
2. MgO- ionic
3. C3H6- covalent
4. K2O- ionic
5. S2- covalent
6. NaCl- ionic
Draw the molecular shapes of the following

a. Linear

b. Trigonal planar

c. Bent (one lone electron pair)

d. Tetrehedral

e. Trigonal pyramidal

f. Bent (2 lone electron pairs)

g. Trigonal bipyramidal

see study guide
What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated compounds?
saturated only have single bonds & unsaturated have double bonds.
draw cyclopentane & cycloheptane
see study guide
What is an isomer and draw an example of a structural isomer?
isomer- 2 or more substances with the same molecular formula, but different structures

see study guide for example

Give an example of a positional isomer.
see study guide
draw an example of a functional isomer.
see study guide #18
Draw a geometric isomer (cis & trans)
see study guide # 19
Explain Kinetic Energy
particles are in constant motion
How can the kinetic theory be used to explain the pressure of a gas?
the smaller the volume, the greater the pressure.
What is the pressure at sea level?
101.3 KPa
What is the difference in pressure when you are on a mountain vs at the bottom of the ocean?
in mtns, pressure is low @ bottom of ocean, pressure is at its highest.
if the volume of a container is halved what happens to the pressure?
it doubles
How are temperature and Kinetic energy related?
the higher the temperature, the higher the Kinetic energy
What is absolute zero?
the temperature at which all molecular motion should cease
Change the following to Kelvin

a. 38 C

b. 12 C

a. 311 K

b. 285 K

Change the following to Celcius

a. 872 K

b. 384 K

a. 599 C

b. 111 C

How do scientists hope to use plasma in production of energy?
nuclear fusion
Define Solute & Solvent.
Solute: being dissolved

Solvent: doing dissolving

universal solvent: H2O

Polar dissolves in _________.
polar
Nonpolar dissolves in _______.
nonpolar
What is the difference between an unsaturated, saturated, and supersaturated solution?
unsaturated: add more solute

saturated: max. amount of solute

supersaturated: over max. amount, solute falls out

What are 3 ways to increase the rate of solubility?
1. adding heat
2. stirring
3. increase surface area, make particles smaller
What is a colloid?
mixtures composed of 2 phases of matter, the dispersed phase & the continuous phase.

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