Theory of multiple intelligence
The existence of savants, prodigies and other exceptional people; 3. A distinct developmental progression; 4. Evidence of an evolutionary history; 5. Presence of core operations; 6. Susceptibility to encoding; 7. Support from experimental psychology 8. Support from psychometric findings. Mathematical Logical-mathematical intelligence is the ability to analyses problems logically and complete mathematical operations. This area has to do with calculation, logic, abstractions, reasoning, numbers and critical thinking.
It usually is associated with mathematical and scientific thinking. This intelligence comprises the skill to use numbers effectively and to be able to reason well. It will involve an ability to deal with patterns, relationships, statements, propositions and similar abstractions. Learners who have this intelligence enjoy mathematics and logic as well as organizing, classifying and interpreting information. They enjoy computers, note taking and tend to enter careers in the accounting, finance or banking fields. 2.
Spatial This area deals with spatial Judgment and is the ability to visualize with a mind’s eye and involves the potential to recognize and use the patterns of wide space. Learners with spatial intelligence are able to accurately observe the visual and spatial world and to apply changes to these observations. They are very happy in dealing with color, line, form and space and to the relationships between them. Learners who possess this intelligence are fond of drawing and painting and like creating visual images and including color into their work.
They use all senses of imaging and are easily able to read maps, charts and diagrams. They tend to enter careers in engineering. 3. Linguistic – verbal Learners with high verbal/linguistic intelligence display a great ability with words and engages and it involves both the written and spoken word and they are easily able to express themselves. They are usually perform well at reading, writing, telling stories and memorizing words along with dates and will be good at spelling. Linguistic ability will involve both verbal and written skills. They use language both written and verbal to remember things, to report and to debate.
Learners with strong verbal intelligence think in words and enjoy reading, writing, listening and talking. They can also have an inclination to dream. They tend to enter careers where they can use their skill at public speaking and debating. . Bodily – Kinesthesia The main part of bodily Kinesthesia intelligence is the ability to control one’s bodily motions and the capacity to handle objects skillfully. Learners with this ability are usually good at body movement, performing actions and physical control and tend to a goal of a physical action along with the ability to train responses.
People with physical kinesthesia intelligence think by means of sensations and would be proficient at sport, drama, physical activities, dance and similar movements. They use opportunities to touch things and to move as physical sensations is how hey process their knowledge. They will be skilled at handicrafts, have good reflexes and tend to be mechanically minded. They tend to enter careers as dancers, builders, sculptors etc. 5. Musical This area deals with sounds, rhythms, tones in music. Learners with this intelligence normally have a good pitch and they even have absolute pitch and usually can sing, play instruments and compose music.
They have a strong appreciation for music and are good at thinking in patterns, rhythms and sounds. They will possibly even use songs or rhythm to help them learn. They do things such s turn information into a rap song to remember information. They can often be found to be keeping time by tapping a foot or by humming. They are often deeply spiritual and create their own music using computer software. They tend to enter careers as musicians, composers, conductors etc. 6. Interpersonal. This area of intelligence is to do with the interaction with other people.
Individuals who have high interpersonal intelligence are known to be sensitive to others’ moods, feelings, temperaments, and motivations and their ability to co-operate in order to work as part of a group. They are skilled at understanding and interacting with other people. They are not essentially extroverts or want to be liked by other people and are happy to be either followers or leaders. These learners learn best by working with others and taking part in group work and enjoy discussions and debate. They usually are able to ‘read’ social situations well and have lots of friends due to their friendly nature.
They tend to enter careers as psychologists, politician, counselor etc. 7. Interpersonal. This intelligence deals with being thoughtful and self-reflective. Persons who have interpersonal intelligence have an awareness of themselves, of their strength and weaknesses, what makes them unique and being able to predict their own reactions and emotions. The enjoy self-reflection and analysis, which may include exploring relationships and day-dreaming. Learners with this intelligence think best on their own and enjoy individual activities, as opposed to group work, where they can set their own pace and prefer to work when things are quiet.
They know and understand themselves well and trust their not necessarily want to be part of the mainstream. They tend to enter careers as Ritter, scientist, philosophers etc. 8. Naturalistic. This area deals with individuals are more in tune with nature and are often more interested with nurturing, exploring the environment and relating information to one’s own natural surroundings. They are usually very aware of even subtle changes to their environment. They include pacifying natural forms such as animal and plant species, rocks and mountain types. They clearly will enjoy natural activities and working with nature.
They are found to learn best when they are able to visualize and dynamically be occupied with natural phenomena. They are sensitive to ecology as well as animal and plant abuse and are often vegetarians. They tend to enter careers as gardeners, farmers, biologists etc. Some writers of the believers of multiple intelligence theories believe that a spiritual religious intelligence should be added as a ninth intelligence. However, Gardner did not want to commit to spiritual intelligence but put forward a suggestion that an existential intelligence may be considered.
Putting Gardener’s theory into practice in the classroom is no straightforward task. Gardner however believed it was vital that teachers take the differences between hillier very seriously and assist them in using their minds to the best of their ability. The application in the classroom of 4 of the areas of intelligence are the following: 1. Linguistic/verbal. This form of intelligence indicates a learner’s ability to use words effectively, both in written for and orally . As a result it is essential that the educator provides as many opportunities for the learner to demonstrate this intelligence.
The learners should be introduced to as many writing exercises as possible. These exercises can be as simple as a paragraph or two or can be extended to essays, written assignments and projects. These should be made available to other pupils through the classroom notice-board or the school newspaper. The educator must also not forget the fact that linguistic skills also include verbal skills. These learners thus enjoy verbal communications which can take different forms such as telling stories, debates and having general discussions in the classroom.
The educator could consider starting up a debating society at the school to give learners as many opportunities as possible to demonstrate this form of intelligence. Questions, tell stories, do vocabulary skits, play memory games and do presentations. . Bodily-. Kinesthesia This form of intelligence refers to the leaner’ ability to use their entire body to express ideas and feelings and use their own hands to transform things. As a result the educator must provide opportunities for the learners to demonstrate this form of Learners with this intelligence are usually talented at sport, drama, physical activities and movement.
Therefore the educator should involve strategies to promote this intelligence such as, physical responses. This strategy would involve physical exercises which normally would take place outside the classroom. Participation in all sports and running activities should be encouraged in order to allow the learners to demonstrate this intelligence and can be used as a medium of expression for them. These learners will also enjoy field trips and hands on activities and younger learners will love Logo and building models.
Learners with physical/Kinesthesia intelligence are enthusiastic about being involved in theatre activities and would enjoy role-playing. For example in a history lesson involving the First Boer War playing the roles of Paul Kruger and Sir Audiophiles Soapstone would be enjoyed by learners with this intelligence. Learners would also enjoy using their hands to do crafts such as handicraft lessons and needlework classes for girls and metalwork or woodwork classes for boys. 3. Interpersonal. This form of intelligence is the ability to deal with other people and their intentions or feelings.
People with interpersonal skills have a great sense of empathy and are sensitive towards others. These learners are therefore happy to work with other people and particularly enjoy participating in group activities. The educator should therefore try to increase the emphasis of group work especially since there has been an increased emphasis on roof work particularly in outcomes-based education. Educators should thus plan activities which involve group work in the classroom as it teaches the skills of co-operation, working with one’s fellow learners and accountability to others.
The educator should allow breaks during the lesson to ‘socialist’ and do tutoring in pairs rather than sole, as this will enhance their learning. Their sensitivity to others will be well demonstrated in such activities. 4. Logical/Mathematical. This intelligence deals with the learners’ ability to use numbers effectively and to be able to reason well. Mathematics is a vital component of education and there are Learners who have this form of intelligence enjoy reasoning, organizing, classifying and interpreting information. They tend to excel in the area of problem-solving and enjoy it.
The educator should consider introducing the following exercises so as to ensure that this activity can be demonstrated by the learners: (I) Exercises which will require the learner to find solutions to problems: (it) Play number games or dice games; (iii) Exercises requiring the use of excel (v) Exercises which will require the learner to classify and quantify (v) Worksheets which involve calculations and quantifying; (vi) Problem-solving facts are provided to the learner and the learner must find the necessary solution to the problem.
There has been a reasonable amount of criticism shown for Gardener’s theory. One of the areas of criticism is that he has now interposed intelligence with what is traditionally known as ability or aptitude. His criteria are considered as subjective and arbitrary and others may have come up with different criteria. A further criticism is that his theory does not offer a test for multiple intelligences and it was initially en as an ability to solve problems.