Theories of Motivation Essay
This essay will look at motive to discourse the content theoretician Abraham Maslow ‘Hierarchy of Needs’ relevancy and his critics. The research of motive is interested fundamentally with why people act in certain ways. ’Why do people make what they do? ’ In typical footings. motive can be defined as the way and doggedness of action. It is interested with why worlds take a specific class of action in to others. and why they continue with a chosen enterprise. frequently sustained over long periods and in the face of troubles and jobs ( Kerch D ( erectile dysfunction ) 1962 ) .
From a reappraisal of motivational theory. ‘Mitchel’ pinpoints four common traits that are intrinsic in specifying Motivation ( Mitchel1982 ) Motivation is typified as an single phenomenon. Every individual is alone and all the major theories of motive in one manner or another allow for this singularity to be demonstrated. . Motivation is described. normally as knowing. Motivation is assumed to be under the workers control. and behaviours that are influenced by motive. such as attempt expended are seen as picks of action.
Motivation is multifaceted. The two factors of greatest importance are ; 1 what gets people active ( rousing ) ; and 2 the force of an person to prosecute in coveted behavior ( way or pick of behavior ) . The intent of motivational theories is to foretell behavior. Motivation is non the public presentation itself and it is non behaviour. Motivation concerns action and the external and internal factors that affect a individuals pick of action. On the footing of these traits. Mitchell defines motive as ‘the extent to which a individual desires and adopts to prosecute in certain specific behaviours’ .
Mullins ( 2010 ) quotes ‘Kathy Scholfield. Director of Human resources. HFC Bank which was sited in ’Engineering the Carrott. Management Today December 1995. p66’ “ You don’t motivate persons. You provide them with an environment to be self motivated. It is a personal determination. but it’s directions occupation to supply the right environment” . Contented theories of Motivation
Significant content theories of motive include •Maslow’s hierarchy of demands •Alderer’s modified need hierarchy pattern •Herzberg two factor theory. •McClelland’s achievement motive theory. Contented theories try to clear up the specific things that really motivate the employee at work and are concerned with the designation of their strengths and demands. and the ends they seek in order to carry through their demands. The content theories focus on the of import factors of demands and what motivates.
“The most widely recognised theoretician in motive was Abraham Maslow who founded the construct “Hierarchy of needs” . his content theory focused on the factors within a individual that energise. sustain and halt behavior and effort to place the distinguishing needs that motivate people. ” ( Mitchell 2008 ) Cole ( 2004 ) states ‘Maslow’s surveies into human motive led him to suggest a theory of demands based hierachial theoretical account with the basic demands at the underside and the higher demands at the top. as in Fig1. This theory made a considerable influence on developments in direction theory during the 1950s/60s due to partially to the simpleness of the theoretical account and partially to the designation of higher degrees of demands. ’
“Maslow’s basic proposition is that people are desiring existences. they ever want more and what they want depends on what they have already have ( Mullins 2010 p261 ) . Maslow identified eight demands. nevertheless the hierarchy of demands merely shows five chief degrees. runing from the lowest degree of physiological demands so through to safety demands. love demands and self esteem demands to the concluding demand of self realization.
Maslow developed his ‘Hierarchy of needs’ ( Fig 1 ) motive theory and it is likely the most popular and most read motive theory. ( Maslow1954 ) theory suggests that people have different demands. which can be grouped and ordered to expose comparative importance. and that within each individual there is a hierarchy of demands and the single must fulfill each degree before they move onto the following.
There are five hierarchal degrees and these are: Physiological demands: Food. shelter. sexual satisfaction i. e. those demands needed for basic endurance. Safety demands: The demand to experience safe and have security. freedom from menaces of force within your environment. Besides refers to emotional and physical safety. Social demands: The demand for love. friendly relationship and belongingness Esteem needs: The demand for self regard. position and acknowledgment from others. Self realization: The point of making 1s full potency. Are you capable at stand outing yourself? Maslow theory proposes that one time a lower degree of demand has been satisfied it is no longer becomes a incentive and the demands of the following upper degree necessitate satisfaction and go the motivative factor. Merely unsated demands are the incentive for a individual and that a satisfied demand is no longer a incentive.
The most important restrictions of Maslow’s theory concern his methodology’ to specify the features of ego acutalised persons by set abouting a qualitive appraisal method called biographical analysis. In short he looked at the Hagiographas and lifes of the people he decided as being self actualised.
This method is subjective and is wholly based on the research worker and personal sentiments are prone to being prejudice. which reduces the cogency of Maslow’s definition of ego realization and should non be accepted as fact. It is besides rather hard to through empirical observation prove Maslow theory of self realization in a manner that insouciant relationships can be established. Author and creative persons such as Rembrandt and Van Gough lived in poorness through their life and it could be argued that they achieved self realization.
It is besides evident when looking at the poorer parts of the universe and the poorness in which people exist. people are still capable of go uping to higher degrees of demands such as belongingness and love. Furthermore this should non happen harmonizing to Maslow as people who are in fiscal adversity are neglecting to run into physiological demands such as shelter and nutrient ( McLeod 2007 ) .
The Economist ( 2008 ) provinces ‘Maslow was described by Peter Drucker as “the male parent of humanist psychology” . But Drucker took issue with Maslow’shierarchy. complaining that he had non seen that “a want alterations in the act of being satisfied” . Hence “ as a wants approaches repletion its capacity to honor. and with it its power of incentive diminishes fast” . And opinionates “so ( as we all know good ) top executives can ne’er be paid plenty for them to be satisfied. ”
Conclusion Even after many old ages have passed since its origin and more and more defects being applied when the hierarchy of demands rules are taken out of its simplistic signifier. Maslow’s theory of is still the most recognized and good known theory to day of the month. being still written approximately and being applied in one signifier or other helping directors in actuating employees in partnership with other direction motivational theories.