Theme park tourism in Hong Kong Essay
Tourism is one of the most of import income beginnings for Hong Kong. The Government wants to develop Hong Kong as a major touristry finish in the universe. Under this state of affairs. amusement park is going more and more of import here. At this minute Hong Kong merely have one large-scale subject park- Ocean Park. but in following twelvemonth Hong Kong Disneyland will be opened. Government predicts HKDL will pull a batch of tourers from all over the universe. particularly from Mainland China. So it wants to develop and promote subject park touristry in Hong Kong.
Tourism is traveling to be one of the most of import income beginnings of Hong Kong. In the recent old ages. Hong Kong Government encourages the development of touristry strongly. For illustrations. like Government encourages the mainlanders to see HK as a free Walker. develop Lantau Island to be a multi- map touristry musca volitanss and to form a legion of particular events. It hopes the ‘smile industry’ can be the chief pillar of Hong Kong economic system. Under this state of affairs. Theme park touristry becomes one of the nucleus points that Government wants to develop and promote. Therefore. in 1999. HK authorities decided to collaborate with an international celebrated subject park company- Disneyland ( DL ) to construct the 5th DL subject park in the universe. They hope this undertaking can hike HK touristry to the extremum and can do HK to be the most attractive touristry finish.
Therefore. my concluding thesis subject is ‘Evaluate the development. outlook and prospective of locals and tourers. and the effectivity of subject park touristry in Hong Kong’ . In my first portion. I will concentrate on the characteristic. strength and particular characteristics of amusement Parkss touristry in Hong Kong and I will do a comparing between Ocean Park and Disneyland. For illustrations. like the installations. attractive forces. transit. adjustment. selling scheme. direction accomplishments. the function of HK Government and civilization of the subject park. The chief portion of my research is to measure the attraction of the subject park to the abroad and local tourers. what age groups are more interested in this sort of touristry. what type of tourer subject park can pull more. what sort of attractive forces in the subject park can pull them to see the most. what is their outlook. prospective and sentiment to the Ocean Park. Together what is their outlook and prospective of Hong Kong Disneyland. My chief survey country is Ocean Park and I will do some comparing with HKDL.
In fact the survey of Hong Kong touristry is non really popular. There are non many bookmans had done this before. Therefore. one of my restrictions is hard to happen the relevancy literatures and diaries about Hong Kong subject park touristry. Together. HKDL is non opened yet besides is my restriction to acquire the first manus resources. Due to this ground. I will establish on the authorities issues. statistic informations and articles of amusement park magazine and the subject park survey of other states. Together I will make some field surveies. personal interview and on site study to roll up the first manus information.
In 1970’s the first subject park appeared in HK- Ocean Park. Its subject is the Ocean characteristics. Therefore. in the Ocean Park we can happen the largest Aquarium in Asia. At the really get downing. it was sponsored by Jockey Club. So everything was run really smooth. 1980’s and early 90’s were the premier clip for Ocean Park. However. the good clip ne’er last long. In 1988. Jockey Club decided to retreat the sponsorship and together the Numberss of visitant was worsening every twelvemonth. At the same clip. Disneyland decides to collaborate with HK Government and to build the 3rd abroad subject park in Penny’s Bay. Therefore. Ocean Park is confronting the obstructions both from internal and external factors. It is the clip for it to rethink its market value and besides how to last after the expansive gap of Hong Kong Disneyland.
Disneyland is an international celebrated trade name name. This first Disneyland opened in Anaheim in 1950’s. It aims to develop a dream topographic point for the visitants. a fantasyland for the grownup and a safe escapade land for the household. It has its ain unique. strong civilization. trade name and symbol. It is traveling to be opened in HK following twelvemonth. No affair HK Government or Disneyland are foretelling this undertaking can convey a great benefits to HK.
Four: Literature Reappraisal:
My survey is about the Amusement Park Tourism of Hong Kong. so it involves in Numberss of different geographics facets. Including the country of Tourism geographics. economic geographics and urban geographics. In my research. it will be concentrate to discourse the development of Amusement Park Tourism of Hong Kong. My survey will be focus into one major Amusement Parks in Hong Kong – Ocean Park. Hong Kong Disneyland would be compare with Ocean Park in certain facet and would be concentrated to discourse about the prospective and outlook of the locals and tourers about it.
The Amusement Park touristry in Hong Kong is being more and more of import. Especially. after the expansive gap of Hong Kong Disneyland following twelvemonth. it will go one of the major attractive forces of Hong Kong. It will pull million of tourers from all around the universe to come to Hong Kong. However. there are non much bookmans had been studied in this country. That is the ground that I am interesting in this country.
My research will be briefly discuss about the characteristic. strength and particular characteristic of subject Parkss in Hong Kong and the relationship between authorities and the Theme Park cooperation. The chief portion of my research is to discourse about the grade of attraction of subject park touristry both to the locals and the oversea tourers. the outlook. sentiments and prospective of the tourers and locals to the subject park. Deborah Philips. Foucault. Dyer. Alan Fyall. Brain Garrod. Anna Leask. Peter E. Murphy and Andrew Lainsbury are some of the cardinal bookmans of the subject park touristry. subject park direction and Disneyland survey. In my research. the 2nd manus resources I will utilize are the newspaper. intelligence. docudrama. diaries and the books. But I besides will make some interviews and studies to roll up the first manus information.
First of wholly. we need to hold a really clear construct of what is Theme Park. Harmonizing to Deborah Philips. ‘Theme park is an foreign district in the metropolis. It is in a recognizable geographical location. but it makes no mention to the local landscape or civilization. ’ For illustration. if you are traveling to Tokyo Disneyland. you can merely see the American civilization but non the Nipponese civilization. Even Foucalt besides has a similar position about subject park. ‘A kind of topographic point that lies outside all topographic points and yet is really localizable. ’ Furthermore. in the article ‘the maps of narrative in the subject park’ . it stated that subject park is a zone to which households and groups travel in order to see a universe that is defined as a site of leisure. and which is particularly visited at vacation times.
All the subject park would hold its ain subject. But usually they are ‘magic’ . instruction. amusement and captivation. For illustrations. like Ocean Park. it aims to supply a topographic point for the visitants to larn more about the ocean life. the importance of preservation and at the same clip besides is a topographic point for loosen uping and holding some merriment. To Disneyland. it is a topographic point. which is presented as fanciful in order to do us believe that the remainder is existent ( Poster 1998:172 ) . Furthermore. Disneyland besides promises the grownup that they can re-experience the childhood through the fairy tale. Disney’s thaumaturgy and the ambiance inside the park.
Attractions are one of the nucleus elements of subject park. Harmonizing to Swarbrooke ( 2000:267 ) ‘Visitor attractive forces are at the bosom of the touristry industry. they are incentives that make people want to take a trip in the first topographic point. ’ Therefore. if the subject park can supply some really attractive attractive forces to the tourer so it would be ain indispensable arm in a battle for tourer concern. The intent for supplying the new attractive force is non merely can run into the locals gustatory sensation but besides have to fit the gustatory sensation of oversea tourers.
There are four cardinal factors of the successful attractive force. They are amusement. instruction. aesthetics and escape. Therefore. most of the subject Parkss are designed as an imagescape. Harmonizing to Waltz Disney. ‘he wants to make a buffer between his fantasy universe and the existent universe. To develop a topographic point for safe escapade. ’ In my research. I would wish to look into how Ocean Park and Disneyland can carry through into these 4 elements and to happen out the gustatory sensations of tourers and locals.
Theme park is a infinite unambiguously devoted to pleasure ; a zone to which households and groups travel in order to see a universe that is defines as a site of leisure. Many research workers have pointed out that Theme Park is for household. so that it is importance of the children’s influence on the determination to see or non. peculiarly when both parents are working. So there are many advertizements are kids orientated. Base on the research from Disneyland ‘Theme park has become a site of ritual jubilation for households and groups on of import juncture. ’ They aim to pull kids to travel to their subject park with their parents. However. through my observation. adolescence and grownup are going more and more of import to the subject park. As they have a really strong devouring power.
Therefore. even Disneyland or Ocean Park besides change their mark consumer and want to supply more attractive forces to pull the new possible consumer to see. However. at the same clip. it is besides really of import to pull the visitants to re-visit once more. Attracting repetition concern requires possible invitees to be convinced that pervious visits are inferior replacements for holiday experiences at the new and improved Parkss ( Bradley M. Braun and Mark Soskin: 2003 ) As the possible visitants are limited. therefore one of the indispensable occupations for the subject park is to supply new attractive forces to pull the old visitants to travel to the park once more. In my research. I would wish to detect how they attract more adolescence and grownup to see. particularly for Ocean Park. At the same clip besides want to happen out how Ocean Park pull the tourers to re-visit the park once more.
Some bookmans argued that there is no relationship between the admittance monetary value consciousness and the frequence of visits. That’s mean. even the admittance fee is really high but if the subject park can supply something new and exciting so it still can pull a 1000000s of people and do the net income from it. For illustration. like the instance of Disney World and Universal Studio in Florida. Therefore. I would wish to utilize Ocean Park as an illustration to turn out that theory can be usage in Hong Kong or non and to do a comparing about the admittance fee between Ocean Park and Hong Kong Disneyland.
Advertisement is an of import tool for pulling the new and possible visitants to see the subject park. Such sort of advertizement is non merely for local. but is globally. They want to develop their ain trade name to be international. So they can pull similar clients in different states. Therefore. we can happen that even the expansive gap of Hong Kong Disneyland ( HKDL ) will be following twelvemonth. But there are legion of advertizements you can happen in newspaper. magazines. wireless. Internet. telecasting. even there is a Disneyland Channel in Jade channel. Will them do a ‘Disney Fever’ occur in Hong Kong besides? However. how Ocean Park utilizing this means to advance its concern? We know that before 1997’s Ocean Park did non recognize advertizement was so of import. But at this minute. the selling scheme of Ocean Park has some altering. It put more afford and cost in the publicity. Therefore. I have an involvement to happen out the difference of attending scheme between HKDL and Ocean Park.
Culture. symbol and logo are three indispensable constituents. Disneyland has developed a strong and clear civilization and trade name for its subject park. It had been ‘designed non as a topographic point where anyone would travel casually to take a roller-coaster drive or purchase a hot Canis familiaris. but as the end of a household escapade. ’ Mickey Mouse. Donald duck. Minnie I think no 1 would state I don’t who are they. They are already in the head of everyone. no affair childs or grownups. However. how about Ocean Park? Is at that place any character that is familiar to everyone? From this we can happen out Brand Development is really of import to the Theme Park. So in my research. I want to analyze deeply about these three constituents in HKDL and Ocean Park. and how them affect the concern of the subject park.
Income of Theme Park can non merely depend on the admittance fee ; it besides has to spread out its income beginnings. Hotel. eating house and ware are the secondary income beginning for the subject park. They are account for a big disbursement portion for the tourer in the subject park. Therefore. largely the subject park wants to promote their visitants to pass more inside the park. For illustration. like Disneyland ne’er allow the tourers to convey their ain nutrient. Furthermore. it besides produces a legion of merchandises for tourers to purchase. Chiefly the keepsake stores are located in Western Main Street. which is the following to the chief entryway. so this can carry the visitants to purchase more.
Furthermore. Disneyland chiefly would supply adjustments for the visitants and promote them to pass more than one twenty-four hours in the park. However. how about Ocean Park? Harmonizing to the information from Ocean Park in 1999. its gross was extremely depended on the admittance fee but non the secondary beginning. Therefore. in this twelvemonth. Ocean Park decides to make something to increase its competitory power with HKDL. It plans to construct a hotel in the about hereafter. It hopes that can pull more visitants to come to the park.
Sponsorship besides is an of import income for the subject park. Through cooperate with certain cooperation. the subject park non merely can have the sponsorship to develop its ain new attractive force but besides can increase the chance to look in the populace. For illustration. like Ocean is collaborating with Kodak. Kodak has sponsored a batch into the development of new attractive forces. This make Ocean Park can put more and pull more tourers. Furthermore. Disneyland besides has a to the full experience to collaborate with different cooperation. Therefore. within the park you can see a batch of advertizements. like coke Cola. Fuji and so on. Even in HKDL. it besides has cooperated with Chow Tai Foo to transport out a series of Mickey jewellery.
Harmonizing to some articles from Amusement Park magazine. I can detect that Ocean Park is making a batch of things to pull the local people and the abroad tourers to travel to. Especially. for the local. as most of the Hong Kong people have been to Ocean Park at least one clip. Therefore. if there is no new attractive force at that place so it is a spot hard to pull local people to travel to Ocean Park once more. However. if it develops a new attractive force so it is non lone clip devouring but besides is a demand a immense cost.
Therefore. in these few old ages Ocean Park tries to transport out some particular events. for illustration. like Halloween. Christmas and Chinese New Year events. Both of them can pull a batch of local people to travel to. nevertheless. how about the abroad and mainland tourers? Are they besides pulling by these events? In my research I besides want to analyze how such events help Ocean Park to get the better of its troubles clip and how they help Ocean Park to vie with HK Disneyland in the hereafter.
Visitor friendly policy besides is really indispensable thing to pull the visitant. Therefore. for illustration. Disneyland want to cut down the waiting clip for the visitant therefore it carries out the FASTPASS policy and besides to demo the waiting clip clearly to the tourers. All of want to make a good experience and memory to the tourers and hope they can come once more. Furthermore. the wage one-price admittance system besides is good for the visitants. This can maximum the merriment for the tourers. Furthermore. HKDL is traveling to open shortly. nevertheless. there are already four Disneyland in the universe. viz. . Anaheim Disneyland. Disney universe in Florida. Paris Disneyland and Tokyo Disneyland. Therefore. can HKDL pull the tourers to come to once more? Will it be the ground for the tourers to come to Hong Kong? So I want to happen out. can HK Disneyland pull the tourers to come to Hong Kong after its expansive gap in following twelvemonth.
Harmonizing to Armstrong ( 1988 ) . he suggested that Human Resources Management is a more distinguishable and valuable direction map. Storey ( 1995 ) besides defined HRM as a ‘distinctive attack to employment direction which seeks to accomplish competitory advantage through the strategic employment of a extremely committed and capable work force. utilizing an incorporate array of cultural. structural and forces techniques. ’ Therefore. HRM is of import to the development of Theme Park Tourism. The HRM of Disneyland is really celebrated. It has its ain preparation school- Disney University to develop the workers and to develop its ain on the job civilization. linguistic communication and value. In my research. I would wish to analyze more the HRM of Ocean Park and compare it with the direction civilization of Disneyland.
Government and the private cooperation ever have a good relationship. Public-Private Partnership ( PPP ) becomes more and more common in the universe and many different commercial facets. Particularly in the subject park industry. as it is non merely has to develop a subject park but besides need a legion of substructures. like transit. electricity. H2O supply. and so on. Therefore. it needs to seek the cooperation of Government. Disneyland has a long history to collaborate with the Government. For illustration. the land of Anaheim Disneyland is come from the local authorities. At this clip. Hong Kong authorities besides participates a batch into the HKDL undertaking. Not merely provides the substructure but besides the money. Although Hong Kong Government is the biggest stockholder in this undertaking nevertheless. all the determination power is belonging to Disneyland.
There is a same instance in Ocean Park. for illustration. the land for ocean Park is provided by Government. In return. through the subject park touristry. this besides brings many benefits to Hong Kong. For illustration. employment chance. excite the touristry. do Hong Kong to be good known internationally. However. are of them can come to be truth? Can theme park touristry conveying the net income to Hong Kong or non? For illustration. at this clip Hong Kong has invested 1000000s in this undertaking. but is it can convey so many benefits to HK? Furthermore. besides the substructure or money investing. I besides still want to cognize whether is at that place anything else that Government has done to promote the development of Theme park in Hong Kong. Together. I want to happen out that is at that place any aid that authorities has offered to Ocean Park and how Government assist Ocean Park to confront the obstructions.
Most of the articles. books and diaries are giving me some really general construct of subject park direction. They explain the definition of the subject park. the direction accomplishments and the selling scheme of the subject park. Furthermore. they explain how to advance the subject park and how to develop up the workers. Furthermore. they have pointed out the necessity of making its ain trade name and civilization. In add-on. many books besides have explained that largely the tourers have multi-expectation and prospective about the subject park before they visit it. But in Hong Kong. can Ocean park and HK Disneyland carry through their demands. outlook and prospective. And Ocean Park in what country disappoints the locals and tourists the most? And what should Ocean Park have to make to better its image and to carry through the locals and tourers demands.
However. there is deficiency of survey is about the subject park in Hong Kong. So it is still go forthing a legion of inquiries. For illustration. what do the local and oversea tourers want to acquire what from the subject park? Furthermore. what does authorities make to advance the subject park touristry and how to assist Ocean Park to last after the gap of HKDL? What are the particular characters of the Hong Kong subject Parkss? Furthermore. how the subject Parkss in Hong Kong can hold their ain trade name and which is difference to the others? Last. can theme park be a chief attractive force and aim for the tourers? Therefore. I would wish to roll up some information through making the studies and interviews. Together. I will roll up some information from the touristry board of Hong Kong. official Websites of HKDL and Ocean Park. one-year study of Ocean Park.
In my research I will utilize the quantitative methods to roll up the first manus information about the gustatory sensation. outlook. prospective and sentiments of the tourers and locals. grade of attraction of subject park to the local and oversea tourers and will they come to Hong Kong for Disneyland.
First of all. what is the significance of quantitative methods? These methods by and large involve statistic analysis. It is generalize about the study population with a certain grade of assurance. Therefore quantitative methods rely on numerical grounds to prove the hypotheses. There are several advantages for utilizing this method. First of all. big sample sizes normally used are more representative of population. This can increase the grade of assurance. Much information in the touristry industry is required in a quantitative signifier to enable directors to do determinations. Datas are easy summarized and analyzed utilizing computing machine. However. there are besides some disadvantages of quantitative methods. First of all. it is hard to reflect individuals’ life history and experiences. Furthermore. it needs big samples for statistical analysis. This is non lone clip devouring but besides it is really dearly-won. Bias possibly caused by hapless inquiries or hapless interviewers which affects people’s reply.
As I will utilize the quantitative methods as one of my tools to roll up the first manus resources. hence. I have to cipher the sample size foremost. Harmonizing to Moser. ‘How large a sample do I necessitate? ’ Before. set up a sample size. we have to bear in head is due to I merely have limit clip and resources. so that it is hard for me to put up a really large sample size. as larger the sample size the greater the resources require. In my research the sample size is 300. and I suppose the response rate is around 50 % . Therefore. I will fix 600 to 700 pieces of questionnaire. In my study. I suppose 50 % are found to be local occupants and 50 % are tourers. But the existent sum for the whole population could be expected to be between 30 % and 70 % .
In my research. I would wish to transport out an on site interview. I would take the entryway of Ocean Park as one of my on site interview location. Therefore. I can acquire the instantly responses and sentiments from the visitants before they visit and after their trial of Ocean Park. Due to HK Disneyland is non yet unfastened in Hong Kong. so it is a spot hard for me to make the study about it. So I will make the study about HK Disneyland in Ocean Park As I suppose the respondents besides may hold involvement about Disneyland. But to avoid the prejudice I besides will make the study about Disneyland in some tourer musca volitanss. I can hold a personal contact with the respondent.
Furthermore. interviewer as necessary can give verbal accounts. Furthermore. misinterpretation is reduced as the interviewer can estimate if respondent has understood the inquiries. In add-on. it can avoid the jobs of limited literacy and unreciprocated inquiries. Last. the response rates normally high. it can be up to 95 % . Together can cut down the chance to acquire some irrelevant informations. However. this may do some prejudice because if I merely do my interview in Ocean Park so chiefly most of the sentiments will be more positive and is a spot hard to roll up some negative sentiments. Furthermore. in somehow it is a spot clip devouring and dearly-won.
Besides on site interview. I besides will utilize Internet as a media to make the questionnaire. I will distribute the questionnaire through ICQ and electronic mail. This can cut down the costs involved in travel. It is more easy to roll up the information from people in different states. However. chiefly the response a rate of this method is bit low and really easy receives the useless information or incorrect replies.
Last. I will hold office- based interviews with one of the selling manager of HKDL to acquire the first manus information about HKDL from him. There are several advantages. First of all. it can be arranged at respondent’s ain convenience. therefore the interview can be longer and roll up more item information. Wider scope of oppugning techniques can be used and the response rate is high. However. I need clip to reach with the respondent and the information about behaviour and sentiments is retrospective and may hold some bias information from him.
There are several sample choosing methods. I will take to utilize the simple random trying method. It is used where the members of a population are similar or homogeneous. Furthermore. it is one of the easiest ways to make the study. It gives an equal opportunity to everyone and can cut down the job of prejudice. However. it is besides easy receive some irrelevant informations. Therefore. together I will utilize the bunch trying method. As I merely have limit clip and resources. Therefore. it is impossible to transport out the study all over Hong Kong. as the country is excessively big. So I will take several interview points to make my study. They are viz. . Ocean Park entryway and inside the park. TST. Peak and airdrome.
Second Hand resources are of import to my research. particularly HKDL will be unfastened in the following twelvemonth. But what is the difference between literature reappraisal and 2nd manus resources? The intent of the literature reappraisal is to derive cognition of the topic. But the 2nd resources of the informations form portion of the existent information aggregation. They have been collected for another intent.
In my research. I will analyze of the feature of the Ocean Park and HKDL. I would wish to analyze what sort of attractive forces. adjustment. and transit we can happen in the Ocean Park and HKDL. I will roll up the information from its official web site. park map. official statistic and Hong Kong touristry board. The latest intelligence about the park will be from newspaper and amusement park magazine. I will roll up the transit information from the City coach and minibus company. together from the web site of MTR as it is make up one’s minding to build a extend line to Ocean Park from Central.
Due to HKDL is non yet unfastened so I couldn’t have a field probe of HKDL. At this minute it is rather hard to roll up the first manus resources about HKDL. Therefore. in the portion of HKDL I will more depend on the 2nd manus resources. I will roll up the informations and information of HKDL through its official website. magazines. newspaper and from the Hong Kong touristry board.
To reason. the position of subject park touristry in Hong Kong will go more and more of import. It will be one of the major attractive forces to pull tourers from all over the universe. At this minute Ocean Park is the lone large-scale subject park in Hong Kong. nevertheless HKDL will be unfastened following twelvemonth. After the expansive gap of HKDL. so how Ocean Park is survive under this strong rival. or Ocean Park has to collaborate with HKDL? But no affair Ocean Park make up one’s mind to make. she will confront a hard clip when HKDL coming to Hong Kong following twelvemonth. In my research I will be focus on probe the installations. transit. adjustment and attractive forces of both Ocean Park and HKDL. Together. I will detect the gustatory sensation. sentiments. outlook. prospective and involvement about theme Parkss of the locals and the tourers. Furthermore. the function of the Government in encourages the development of subject park touristry
VI. Outline of the research
September Define the subject of the concluding thesis
September to November Literature Review
November Prepare the research proposal
Fix the questionnaire
Contact with HKDL
December Hand the research proposal
Presentation about the proposal
January to February Do the on site study
Field survey in Ocean Park
Analysis the informations
March Prepare the Final Thesis and presentation
1. Paul Brunt Market Research in Travel and Tourism Butterworth-Heinemann 1997
2. Anthony M. Graziano. Michael L. Raulin Research Methods Library of Congress Cataloging-in- Publication Data 1999
3. James Mak Tourism and the economic system University of Haiwai international imperativeness 2004
4. Rita Aero Walt Disney World For grownups and households excessively! Fodor’s travel Publication INC. 1998
5. John Philip Jones International Advertising Realities and Myths Sage Publications LTD. 2000
6. Andrew Lainsbury Once upon an American Dream University imperativeness of Kansas 2000
7. Alan Fyall. Brain Garrod and Anna Leask Managing Visitor Attractions Butterworth Heinemann 2003
8. David Crouch Leisure/tourism Geographies Routledge Taylor and Francis Group 1999
9. Christopher M. Law Urban Tourism pulling visitants to big metropoliss Mansell Publishing Limited 1993
10. Steve Mannheim Walt Disney and the Quest for Community Ashgate Publishing Limited 2002
11. Gary Oddou and Mark Mendenhall Cases in international Organizational Behavior Blackwell Publishers Ltd. 1998
12. Peter E. Murphy Quality Management in Urban Tourism John Wiley and boies LTd. 1997
13. Harper and Lawson The Cultural Study of Work Rowman and Littlefield Publishers INC 2003
14. John. M. Findlay Magic Lands Western Cityscapes and American Culture After 1940 University of California Press 1992
15. Greg Richards Marketing China Overseas: The function of Theme Parks and Tourist Attractions Anonymously refereed paper 2001
16. Nick Johns and Szilvia Gyimothy Mythologies of a subject park: an icon of modern household life Journal of Vacation selling Sep 2002
17. Raymond M. Weinstein Disneyland and Coney Island: Contemplations on the development of the modern amusement park Journal of Popular civilization summer 1992
18. Jeffrey Hickman Service quality and human resource patterns: a subject park instance study International diary of modern-day Hospitality direction 2003
19. Jane Gaboury Wonderful universe operations IIE Solutions May 2002
20. Shelley J Row Transportation operation: Lesson from Mickey Mouse ITE Journal may 2004
21. Tom Holland A private Believer Far eastern economic reappraisal Aug 2004
22. George C. Tilyou Developer of the modern-day amusement park Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly 2000
23. Eliza Aragon Hiring patterns in the amusement park industry Management research intelligence 2003
24. Tony Lisanti Disney’s lesson for retail merchants Discount store intelligence: New York 1998
25. Barbara Y P Leung Option pricing for existent estate development: Hong Kong Disneyland Journal of belongings investing and Finance 2002
26. Greg Groller Disneyland Celebration to Include Dinosaur. Stunt Cars. Cinderella Musical Knight Ridder Tribune Business News 2004
27. Tim O Brien Disney seeks to maximise investing Amusement Business 2003
28. Anonymous Branding in hostile environment Strategic Direction 2001
29. Natasha Emmons Ocean park Amusement Business: New York 2002
30. Edward Neilan Can Mickey Mouse Pull Hong Kong out of Rat? Journal of Commerce 1999
31. Erika Rasmusson Brand New World Gross saless and Marketing Management 2001