The use of genetic engineering can only benefit humans

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Genetic engineering is a word that is used to describe the ability that has been developed enabling molecular biologists to move genes from one chromosome to another. In recent years, scientists have learned new techniques to get at the DNA and, therefore, the genes of organisms. They have learned how to isolate individual genes from a DNA molecule and to transfer them from one kind of organism to another. The ability to change the genetic instructions of an organism has opened the door to many new discoveries, many of which are expected to benefit humans.

For example, some rare and expensive disease-fighting hormones can be manufactured in the laboratory using organisms. Some plants and animals that are used for food can be genetically altered to make them easier to grow or more nutritious. Microorganisms that engulf and break down toxic waste materials can be developed. We likely will learn many other possibilities as we learn more about DNA and how the cell functions.

The set of techniques used to manipulate DNA is known as genetic engineering. www. isbe. state. il. us/… /… Engineering. htm) Genetic engineering is a complex technique, which needs special enzymes called restriction endonucleases, which chops up DNA strands at

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individual specific locations (sites). (Heinemann Advanced Science by Ann Fullick) This new method of engineering is very beneficial to human beings because genetic engineering has, for example, made it possible to detect, and in some cases treat, diseases such as sickle-cell anaemia, diabetes and cystic fibrosis.

Following initial concerns that genetic engineering could give rise to infectious organisms, the spread in which would be difficult to keep contained. While it is not possible to eliminate completely the risk of a genetic engineering accident, the experience of the last 10 or so years of research has indicated that the chances of constructing a disease-producing organism by accident are very remote. (www. coursework. info/i/1378. i) Genetic engineering would cause an E. oli bacterium cell, to produce insulin, which is chemically identical to its naturally produced counterpart.

This is an example of how recombinant DNA can be used to help people who have medical problems. With this system the human being is producing a protein inside of them, which will provide them constantly with enough insulin thus meaning that they don’t need to constantly take injections. This is not only saving the person with this defected time but will also make them physically and mentally more confident in what they do.

This type of engineering can also create a new type of human being with advantageous traits that will help us as mammals move along the evolution chain. It is also very dangerous because there is a risk of mutation from trans-species transfer of “jumping genes,” this means that the risk of mutation would be from the gene and mutate the body into whatever organism the gene came from. There could be the creation of super viruses by viral recombination in human cells, and there could be cancer genes that recombine with endogenous viruses that make them resistant to the normal treatment we have now.

People also disagree with genetic engineering because of moral and/or religious beliefs since God created us and if we engineered human beings people would then think that they could play the role of God. Life is also thought of as a precious gift that if we do this we will then take life for granted and it would not be special. People are not the only organisms on the earth that benefit from genetic engineering, animals, plants, and microorganisms can also benefit. Animals would generate pharmaceutical proteins, which cannot be made any other way if they were genetically modified.

They could also tolerate factory farming without suffering in any way, even though there are disadvantages to genetic modifications such as increased instrumentalisation of animals, animals suffering, and possible diseases that transfer through xenotransplantation (animal to human transplants). Plants and vegetation can be genetically modified and there are a lot of benefits such as more and quicker predictable ways to generate new cultivars, an increase in biodiversity, and a cultivar’s properties would be better known than before.

A more sustainable agriculture can be achieved; helps to secure a food source for the country’s population, there would be a reduction in the use of pesticides and herbicides. There are quite a lot of disadvantages for example genomic instabilities in the chromosomes, which can be hereditary. If modifications go wrong there might be a heavy dependence on herbicides, contamination of organic crops with transgenes from other genetically modified crops.

Microorganisms are also beneficial since they can produce pharmaceuticals that cannot be produced any other way, it can get rid of contaminants easily, and cleans up waste pollution. The disadvantages are that it can produce dangerous pathogens and diseases, which may escape containment, a spread of antibiotic resistance to anything so it would be dangerous to us, and a recombination of supposedly crippled viruses. (www. anth. org/ifgene/beginner. htm) Another disadvantage is that it could be dangerous to the environment when considering a genetically manipulated organism could cross with other organisms.

This could cause unpredictable and irreversible changes to the ecosystem. However nobody will know what will happen. This is the reason why so many people have an opinion that genetic manipulation should be forbidden. I think that genetic engineering is beneficial to humans, plants, animals, and microorganisms because it allows all of us to reach our potential in life and it is also a horrific concept because we would be playing the role of God since we can make and destroy organisms when ever we want.

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