The Study of Disease Process

chromosomes
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes

homozygous
identical genes from each parent

herterozygous
different genes from each parent

genotype
desrription of the combination of a person’s genes

phenotype
observable physical characteristis, revealed in apperance

mutations
changes in the genetic material

cystic firbosis
a chronic, generalized diseae of the glands that release their secretions into thedigestive tract or to the outer surface of the body

Tay-Sachs disease
a rare lipid abnormaility distinguished by progressvie neurologic deterioration and a cherry-red spot with a gray border on both retinas.

inflammation
the body’s response to trauma, physical agents, or chemical agents, allergens and disease producing or pathogenic organisms

homeostasis
a state of stability that the body tires to maintain even though it is exposed to continually changing outside forces.

Fungi
groups include yeast and mold

Rickettsiae
bacteria like organisms live parasitcially inside living cells

Protozoa
single celled organisms have animal like characteristics

Trichomonas vaginalis
a protozoon that causes trichomoniasis or vaginitis

Viruses
smallest microorganisms

parasites
a group of host reqiring organisms that include external and internal parasites

bacilli
rod shaped bacteria

cocci
dot shaped bacteria

spirilla
spiral shaped such as syphilis and cholera

disease caused by cocci
gonorrhea, menigitis, tonsillitis, bacterial pneumoina

hypovolemic shock
a condition of severe physiologic distress

synocope
a transient loss of consciousness

analgesics
pain relievers

antiemetics
stop vomitting

benign tumor
remains circumscribed

malignant tumor
cancer

phagocytosis
invading organisms are engulfed

humoral immunity
the body’s major defense against bacteria

antigent
any substance that, when produced into the body causes the production of a specific antibody by the immune system

cell-mediated immunity
action by another group of white blood cells, called T-cell lymphocytes.

urticaria
hives

wheals
surrounded by a reddened area that may cover a small region or the entire body

anaphylaxis
allergic reaction

lymphadenopathy
diseases of teh lymph nodes

T
the size and extent of the tumor

N
the number of lymph nodes involved

M
metastasis