The structural theory of family structure Essay
Family therapy is based on the belief that the household is a alone societal system with its ain construction and forms of communicating. These forms are determined by many factors, including the parents ‘ beliefs and values, the personalities of all household members, and the influence of the drawn-out household ( grandparents, aunts, and uncles ) . As a consequence of these variables, each household develops its ain alone personality, which is powerful and affects all of its members.
The structural theory sees the household as an incorporate whole. Therefore, the accent should be contextual jobs and solutions instead than an person. It focuses on household interactions to understand the construction or organisation of the household. The theory consists of three major constructs viz. household construction, household subsystems and boundaries.
The household construction represents the operational regulations that govern the manner household members interact with each other ( Goldenberg & A ; Goldenberg, 2000, p.198 ) . The construction of the household provides an apprehension of the forms that develop over clip within a household to let it to keep stable while bing in a changing environment ( Goldenberg & A ; Goldenberg, 2000 ) . The household construction is governed by two sets of restraints ; generic regulation and idiosyncratic regulations.
Generic regulations dictate the hierarchal construction of the household, which Structuralists believes is a portion of all good functioning households. This hierarchy is reflected in the power and authorization derived function between parent and kids and older siblings and younger siblings. Generic regulations are besides seen in the different functions played by household members within the hierarchy. The functions are normally complementarity, such as the function of the hubby and married woman, which, consequences in the members working as a squad to transport out the needed maps of the household. Idiosyncratic or individualised restraints are “ specific to the household and involves the common givens of peculiar household members sing their behavior towards each other ” ( Goldenberg & A ; Goldenberg, 2000, p.199 ) .
The structural theory is a systems theory and as such, the household is viewed, as a system comprised of assorted subsystems. These sub systems are hierarchically arranged and exist to back up undertakings necessary for household operation ( Goldenberg & A ; Goldenberg, 2000, p. ? ? ? ) . The primary sub systems of the household are spousal, parental and sibling. “ The bomber systems are defined by interpersonal boundaries and regulations of rank which regulate the sum of contract with other subsystems ” ( Goldenberg & A ; Goldenberg, 2000, p. ? ? ? ) . The spousal bomber system is considered the most of import subsystem, due to the built-in function it plays in the stableness and flexibleness of the household. Formation of the bomber system occurs when two people marry and start a new household. The stableness and endurance of the new unit is dependent on the ability of the twosome to negociate difference, accommodate each other and develop complementary functions, which will run into the demand of each individual ( Becvar & A ; Becvar, 2003 ) .
The extra of a kid changes the spousal subsystems into parental bomber system, with both systems coexisting at the same time. The accomplishments and functions necessary for the care and operation to the spousal subsystem are still used but the focal point is on rearing of the kid throughout the different developmental phases ( Becvar & A ; Becvar, 2003 ) . The sibling subsystem is comprised on the kid or kids within the household. It provides the medium within which kids first experience equal relationship that helps them to work out difference and support each other. They besides learn to cover with the parental subsystem as they navigate relationship alterations between the subsystems throughout their development rhythms ( Goldenberg & A ; Goldenberg, 200 ) .
The concluding constituent of the structuralist footing dogmas is boundaries. Boundaries provide unseeable limit between single and sub systems, they determine the sum and sort if contract between household members ( Becvar & A ; Becvar, 2003, p. 177 ) . These boundaries are categorized as clearly defined, diffused or stiff. These categorizations are based on the flexibleness of the boundaries. Clearly defined boundaries are considered ideal as it promotes independency and freedom for the persons while supplying support by the household. Diffused boundaries are excessively flexible and consequence in bleary lines of limit between subsystems. This leads to what Minuchin describes as enmeshment, conversely stiff and inflexible boundaries lead to isolation or detachment ( Goldenberg & A ; Goldenberg, 2000 ) .
Another systematic household theoretician was Bowen who posits his Family System theory. The eight meshing constructs of the theory are distinction of ego, trigons, atomic household emotional system, household undertaking procedure, emotional cut off, multigenerational transmittal procedure, sibling place and social arrested development.
Differentiation of ego involves the ability to be emotionally separate from other household members and the ability to separate feeling procedures from rational procedures. The separation of feeling and rational procedure will let the person to avoid exposing behaviour driven automatically by emotions ( Goldenberg & A ; Goldenberg, 2000.p. 172 ) .
Triangles are three individual emotional units formed to spread or cut down emotional tenseness in an person or their relationships. A couple is inherently unstable particularly in times of anxiousness and tenseness and so either party will seek to convey some one else in, which will alter the kineticss of the interactions between the individuals involved. The trigon is more stable and tolerant of emphasis than the couple. It is considered the smallest stable relationship unit in the household, which allows members to equilibrate intimacy and distances while sing the least sum of anxiousness ( Goldenberg & A ; Goldenberg, 2000, p.174 ) .
“ The atomic household emotional system is multigenerational as single repetition the soldierly picks and other important relationship forms learnt from their household of beginning ” ( Goldenberg & A ; Goldenberg, 2000, p.176 )
Family projection procedure occurs chiefly in the father- mother- kid trigon where parents transmit their low degrees of distinction on the most susceptible kid ( Goldenberg & A ; Goldenberg, 2000 ) . “ The degree of projection is straight correlativity to the degrees of distinction of the parents and the emphasis or anxiousness the household experiences ” ( Goldenberg & A ; Goldenberg, 2000, p.178 ) . This household projection procedure frequently consequences in the Bowen ‘s 5th construct of emotional cut off. Emotional Cut off is the effort by kid or kids who are the focal point of the household projection procedure to make emotional distance between themselves and their household of beginning ( Goldenberg & A ; Goldenberg, 2000 ) .
The multigenerational transmittal procedure “ involves the transmittal of specific degrees of distinction over several coevalss ” ( Goldenberg & A ; Goldenberg, 2000, p. 180 ) . This transmittal takes topographic point mostly through the atomic household emotional system and the household projection procedure.
The Sibling place construct resulted from Bowen ‘s enlargement of Toman ‘s research on sibling place. Toman cited in Goldenberg and Goldenberg, 2000 postulate, “ some fixed personality features are developed by kids based on their birth order ” ( Goldenberg & A ; Goldenberg, 2000, p. 182 ) . Bowen saw interactions forms between partners as a straight relation to their birth order in the household of beginning as good their functional place.
Social Regression, the emotional kineticss of the household are similar to those of the household. In times of chronic emphasis ( e.g. depletion of natural resources ) society tends to respond on an emotional degree alternatively of on rational determined rules ( Becvar & A ; Becvar, 1999, p.149 ) .
There are elements of both theories that I agree with based on my beliefs system. Bowen ‘s mutigenerational transmittal procedure I believe helps to explicate some of the interactions and forms that are repeated across coevalss such as absentee male parents and adolescent gestation. However, Bowen theory seems to be focused on the operations of the atomic household while the structuralist theory can be more contextual applied to Jamaican society as the consequence of subsystems and boundaries within the household has resulted in household constructions such as the individual parent, blended, big and three generational. The importance placed on the household interaction and its attendant consequence on the behavior of its members is a belief that I besides portion. I believe that many of the debatable behavior displayed by persons are connected to the household of beginning. I besides support the accent placed by Minuchin on the spousal subsystem within the household construction. The failure of twosomes to adequately keep this subsystem while efficaciously negociating and developing the parental subsystem leads to disfunction, which sometimes consequences in the interruption down of the household.
My household of beginning was non a atomic one therefore ; I believe that the structuralist theory is more applicable. In conformity with the structuralist attack, my household consisted of the parent and sibling subsystem with diffused boundaries within the sub systems. The diffused boundaries resulted in enmeshment as the boundaries between the sibling and parental subsystems become bleary. The enmeshment was likely supported by the fact that our female parent was a adolescent female parent. The kids crossed from the sibling subsystem into the parental subsystem to presume some of the duties to assist our female parent who was a individual parent header with the economic adversities of raring two kids by herself. The boundaries became really diffused and authorization and decision-making became shared more and more as we ( the kids ) reached adolescence. The consequence was that by the clip we got to early adulthood the functions were reversed and the parental function was mostly assume at the younger kid in the household. The enmeshment resulted in the household being really emotional fused which resulted in emotional overdependence within the household. The degree of enmeshment was peculiarly high between my female parent and her younger kid such that when the younger kid married, ma saw it as treachery. She felt abandoned and had a difficult clip seting to the alteration.
The structuralist theory sees the healer function as really active with the consequences of therapy been mostly dependent on healer who is the major instrument o f alteration. The healer articulations and accommodates the household while measuring the construction to understand how they deal with jobs and each other. The interactions of the healer with the household are aimed at assisting the persons to concentrate on the behavior of all the members and non merely the identified patient. It besides seems to let the members to see that alteration can be achieved through their interactions. The healer uses “ techniques such as passage ( household members act out a scenario within the household ) and so uses it for boundary marker ( realining boundaries ) , unbalancing ( back uping one member in order to unbalance the household equilibrium ) and reframing the jobs as a map of the construction ” ( Goldenberg & A ; Goldenberg, 2000, p.216 ) . The chief purpose is to understand the bing organisation of the household and to reorganise the construction to convey about alteration in the interactions, functions and operation of the household.
Similarly, the household system theory sees the healer function as being really of import but for them the healer needs to be more degage. Harmonizing to Bowen, the healer had to guarantee that they were non triangulated with the household and are to see themselves more as managers in the curative procedure. The curative procedure involves an appraisal of the household history every bit good as a history of the presenting job. Genograms are used to enter household history over at least three coevalss to assist the household understand the emotional procedures in an intergenerational context. The healer besides used procedure inquiries to measure the forms of emotional operation within the household. The purpose of therapy is to assist household members manage their anxiousness, aid to detriangulate where necessary and to increase distinction of ego. Techniques used in therapy such as procedure inquiries and I statements are aimed at assisting members cut down their degree of responsiveness to learn others actions ( Goldenberg & A ; Goldenberg, 2000 ) .
System theory is besides applicable to organisations and organisation consultancy. Fuqua and Newman cited in ( Lowman 2002p. 98 ) “ In system theory or system intelligent organisations are thought of as dynamic whole systems which are comprised of subsystems that interact in complex, multidirectional and mutual inter-relationships ” . They identified four major organisational subsystems viz. purposive, operational, methodological and psychosocial. The kineticss of an organisation system is such that there is a changeless inter drama of influences between the organisation construction, human behavior and the excess organizational environment ( Lowman, 2002 ) .
Consultant psychologist usage system theory to understand, buttocks and develop intercessions of organisational system with a position to maximise the quality of human life, which includes productiveness ( Lowman, 2002 ) . In seeking to carry through these aims the adviser helps people see the wholistic position of the organisation through deriving an grasp of the forms of inter relationship within the organisation. The adviser utilizing the theory in measuring an organisation and planning intercessions will non “ concentrate on single behavior but will alternatively concentrate on the psychosocial subsystem, which represents the human or behavioural facets of the organisation ” ( Lowman, 2002, p. 99 ) .
A systematic position of organisation utilizes the rule of integrity and mutli-causality. “ Wholeness focal points in the fact that the single interactions merchandise a whole that is greater than the single constituents. Multi-causality implies that several actions can ensue in one result and one solution can do multiple effects ” ( Moe & A ; Perera-Diltz, 2009, p. 29 ) . These rules emphasize the fact that the adviser has use non-linear thought while concentrating on the organizational procedures at work ( Moe & A ; Perera-Diltz, 2009 ) .
Along with sing the mutuality of the system parts and the effects of actions on the system, the adviser has to find the type of system. Systems can be either open or shut, nevertheless most systems are considered inherently unfastened. Open system are characterized by changeless mutual interactions between extra-organisation factors and the organisation system ( Lowan, 2002, p. 89 ) . An unfastened system is hence more receptive to alter compared to a closed system where the focal point is on care of the position quo. The adviser apprehension of the type of system helps to find the planned attack to implementing alteration in the organisations ( Moe & A ; Perera-Diltz, 2009 ) .
Additionally the adviser has to see the degree of engagement in the alteration procedure that is accomplishable. Inclusion broadens ownership of the issues and the proposed alterations while exclusion can actuate individuals to defy alteration and make a sense of isolation ( Lowman, 2002, p.100 ) .
The usage of systems theory by the guidance and confer withing psychologist within the household and organisation to convey about alteration in the quality of life of the affected persons and the attendant societal systems that they are a portion of is really of import. It emphasizes the importance of the whole and non the single parts and how the kineticss and inter dependance of the parts affect the system.