The Science of Civil Engineering
The BASE program provides technical skills and knowledge in lancing, design, construction, supervision, and maintenance of civil engineering works. Examples of civil engineering works include infrastructures for transportation (roads, railroads, bridges, ports, airports), commerce (shopping malls), education (schools, universities), human settlements (large scale housing projects, water supply, sewage disposal), energy development (power stations, power lines) and agriculture (irrigation, farm drainage).
Civil engineers collaborate with architects with regards to the design of infrastructures; they also coordinate and supervise construction, working with other engineers and contractors. They make decisions on the best materials and methods, review and approve project drawings, manage budgets, schedule equipment and materials purchases and delivery, and make necessary changes when the situation warrants or when clients change their minds about something.
Civil Engineering is one of those branches of knowledge which properly take their places both amongst the sciences and the arts; for a science consists of a collection of general principles or truths relating to any particular subject, while an art are the application of those principles to practice, for the purpose of affecting some particular object. The Science of Civil Engineering, then, informs us of the general principles of mechanics and construction, and teaches us in what to sustain in such strains without injury.
And the Art of Civil Engineering consists n the application of these principles to the actual construction of various works, and their judicious use and modification to meet the several contingencies which arise in practice.. In general, it is the branch of engineering which deals with the planning, design, construction and maintenance of the structures like buildings, roads, bridges, canals, dams, water supply and treatment systems etc. It has a broader spectrum and comprises of many sub-disciplines under it.
The branches of civil engineering are: structural, construction, categorical, urban/town/municipal, environmental, transportation, surveying, water resource, tunnel, earthquake, material and coastal. The civil engineering profession recognizes the reality of limited natural resources, the desire for sustainable practices (including life-cycle analysis and sustainable design techniques), and the need for social equity in the consumption Of resources.
Surface saying, the basic responsibilities of a civil engineer is to plan and sign a structure and analyze its various aspects, make a regular inspection in the site to ensure that the construction is going according to the plan and to make the necessary amendments in the project if required during the course of construction. Civil engineer has to make sure that the project is cost effective and structure is of required strength and safety.
The civil engineer holds the safety, health, and welfare of the public paramount. Civil engineering projects and systems should compliance with governmental guidelines and regulations; should be built economically to function properly tit a minimum of maintenance and repair while withstanding anticipated usage and weather; and should conserve energy and allow hazard-free construction while providing healthful, safe, and environmentally sound utilization by society.
In early human days, it was limited to construction of roads and building, but with advancement in science and technology, and with development of human civilization, this field has made a significant leap. From high-rise buildings to huge massive dams, from large tunnels to canals and bridges, the scope of civil engineering has magnificently broadened with time.