The New Jim Crow

How many Americans are now in prison?
Over 2 million
How many were in prison 30 years ago?
300,000
Most of this increase is due to what kind of conviction?
Drug convictions
Which country has the highest rate of incarceration in the world?
The United States
In Germany, how many people per 100,000 adults and children are in prison?
93 people per 100,000 adults & children
In the United States, how many people per 100,000 adults and children are in prison?
750 per 100,000
True or False. The US today imprisons a larger percentage of its black population than South Africa did during apartheid.
True.
In Washington DC, how many young black men can expect to serve time in prison?
3 out of 4 (This rate is higher when you consider only young men in the poorest neighborhoods.)
True or false. People of all colors use and sell illegal drugs at remarkably similar rates.
True
True or false. Survey data frequently suggest that white youth are more likely to engage in drug crimes than people of color.
True.
True or false. In some states, black men have been admitted to prison on drug charges at rates twenty to fifty times greater than those of white men.
True.
True or false. In some major cities, as many as 80 percent of young African American men how have criminal records.
True.
When the war on drugs began, was drug crime on the increase or the decrease?
It was decreasing.
Civil rights lawyers and activists, until this book came out, focused primarily on what issue?
Affirmative action, particularly in higher education
What does ACLU stand for?
American Civil Liberties Union
What is a civil liberty?
The freedom to exercise our rights as guaranteed under the laws of the country.
In 2008, the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights reported how our elected officials voted on major civil rights issues. What were some of those issues?
voting rights, affirmative action, immigration, nominations, education, hate crimes, employment, health,housing, and poverty.
What topic was NOT included in these voting record reports?
Criminal justice reform
How many civil rights organizations were included in the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights?
180
In 2009, the Congressional Black Caucus conducted a survey about what priorities they should address. They included 35 topics to vote on. What topic was missing?
Criminal justice reform
Civil rights advocates have had some successes in criminal justice reform. What are these successes?
*In 1999, the NAACP Legal Defense Fund challenged a racist sting operation in Tulia, Texas.
*They have successfully attacked felon disenfranchisement laws (laws that say felons can’t vote, even after they have served their time in jail)
*They have opposed “zero tolerance” policies that funnel children of color from school to jail.
*The Drug Law Reform Project
*Condemning racial profiling
When was the Civil Rights Act of 1964 passed?
1964
Who was Nathaniel Bacon?
A white property owner in Jamestown, Virginia who organized a rebellion against the white planter elite.
When was Bacon’s Rebellion?
1675
True or false. Slaves, poor whites, and indentured servants were all united together in Bacon’s Rebellion?
True. And this scared the white planter elite, causing them to import more African slaves and give special privileges to poor whites. This was intended to drive a wedge between whites and blacks. (Divide and conquer!)
What special privileges were poor whites given at this time?
1. White settlers were given greater access to Native American lands;
2. White servants were allowed to police slaves through slave patrols and militias; and
3. Barriers were created so that white jobs would not be taken by slaves
Who wrote The Strange Case of Jim Crow?
C. Vann Woodward
When did he write it?
1955
What did Martin Luther King Jr. call this book?
The “historical bible of the Civil Rights Movement”
What does “antebellum” mean?
Existing before a war; especially before the American Civil War
Which amendment abolished slavery?
The 13th Amendment
What did the Civil Rights Act of 1866 do?
Gave full citizenship to African Americans
What did the 14th Amendment do?
Prohibited states from denying citizens due process and “equal protection of the laws”
What did the Fifteenth Amendment do?
Declared that the right to vote should not be denied on account of race
Which set of laws stated that violent infringement of civil rights was a crime?
The Ku Klux Klan Acts
What did the Freedmen’s Bureau do?
Provided food, clothing, fuel, and other forms of assistance to poor former slaves
What does “destitute” mean?
Poor
The public education system that emerged in the South allowed what to happen?
It gave many blacks (and poor whites) their first opportunity to learn to read and write.
What “successes” occurred in the Reconstruction Era?
African Americans began to vote in large numbers (with protection of federal troops)
In 1870, at least 15% of all Southern elected officials were black
Literacy rates for blacks climbed
Blacks opened schools
Blacks opened successful businesses
What ways did whites prevent blacks from voting?
By imposing educational requirements, residential requirements, literacy tests, and poll taxes
What was “convict leasing”?
The practice in which prisoners were contracted out as laborers to the highest bidder. (It was a crime to be a vagrant, so many blacks were arrested & put in prison.) Unlike slave owners, the private contractors did not care about the health of these workers, so death rates were shockingly high.
Slavery was illegal, with one exception. What was that exception?
Slavery was appropriate as punishment for a crime.
What were the three competing philosophies of race relations?
Liberalism
Conservatism
Radicalism
What was the liberal philosophy of race relations?
emphasized the hypocrisy of a government that celebrates freedom and equality yet denies both because of race
This philosophy took hold in the North, but not the South