The management functions
The management functions of planning, leading, organising and controlling will be most effective if they take the form of a multi-instrument and a multi-target approach. This means that the many instruments for management such as planning, reporting, auditing, impact assessment and life-cycle analysis to name only a few, should be used in mining operations. Moreover, such instruments for management need to be adopted in different ways and combinations, depending on many factors. Here environmental protection and occupational safety (third grid effects) probably play a role.
Better ventilation and more tunnel supports are required to protect underground miners. As a consequence, more hours of work are necessary to mine a ton of coal. However, considering fewer accidents or a cleaner environment, the measured productivity problem is less of a problem than it seems. The air is better to breathe. There is also less environmental damage. Thus, although UK COAL, UK’s biggest producer of coal, has been in continuous decline in terms of numbers of collieries and labour force levels since nationalisation in 1995, the company has defined objectives and targets in areas such new surface mines in planning/application.
Clearly, this has implications for economic regeneration. UK COAL has