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The Illiad (Norton Anthology Of World Literature Volume A 3rd ed.)

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What war are the Illiad and the Odyssey about?
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Trojan War
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How long ago was the Illiad written?
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almost 3000 years
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Who was the Trojan wars fought between?
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Troy and Greeks
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a set of written characters representing syllables
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What is a Syllabary
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What group of people used a Syllabary
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Myceneans (early Greek speakers)
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In what time did the Myceneans live?
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Bronze age
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Dark Ages of Greece
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Time between the fall of the Myceans (the loss of reading and writing) and the Phoenicians creating a new alphabet
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Were the Dark Ages Greeks without literature?
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Oral poetry!
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Latin for letters
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Litterae
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What is the basis for Homeric wars?
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Battles between Mycenean Greeks and Asia Minor
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What poetry form did early greeks use?
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Hexameter (six part line) Used instruments
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What the use of bronze weaponry in The Iliad modern?
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Nope, anachronistic
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How long would it take to perform the Iliad or the Odyssey (sing)
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20 hours at least
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What are the Iliad and the Odyssey a collection of
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Two Coherent stories made from many legends surrounding the Trojan war
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What Greek words does “Epic” derive from?
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Story, word
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Roman poet that imitated the Iliad and Odyssey
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Virgil
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Where does the Iliad get it’s name?
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Iliad = Ilias = Troy = 3 words = 3 = 3 points on a triangle = Illuminati confimed
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The background of the Trojan War
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Paris (prince of Troy) had to choose which goddess to give a golden apple (Athena,Hera,Aphrodite). Chose Aphrodite, Aphrodite awarded him the most beautiful woman (Helen of Sparta) as wife But Helen already had a husband! (Menelaus) Paris took Helen back home to Troy Agamemnon and Menelaus mustered an army (including Achilles, Odysseus) war Ended with Odysseus finally getting into Troy and winning via the Trojan Horse
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Queen of the gods
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Hera
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Who is menelaus a brother of
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powerful general Agamemnon
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Special quality of Achilles/Odysseus
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Achilles – Fastest runner, best fighter Odysseus – Cleverest Greek
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How long did the Trojan war last?
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10 years
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What is the focus of the Iliad and what is it’s time span (within the war)
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Beings in the 10th year and ends before capture of the city The rage of Achilles against his comrade Agamemnon and then later against Trojans
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Achilles’ special kind of rage
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menis, a term meant only for the rage of the gods!
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What sparks the argument between Achilles and Agamemnon
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Achilles gains a girl as a prize of war (Briseis) and Agamemnon wants her as recompense for his loss of is own girl (Chryseis)
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Mother of Achilles
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Thetis
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Goddess?
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The Muse
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Who set Achilles and Agamemnon on eachother’s throats?
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Apollo
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Who is “Apollo’s” priest?
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Chryses (Father of Chryseis, the girl Agamemnon took as war spoils)
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King of Troy
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Priam
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Agamemnon’s home
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Argos
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Does Agamemnon accept Chryses’ attempt at payment for his daughter?
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NOPE (pisses off Apollo)
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Apollo’s parents
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Zeus and Leto
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What did Chryses sacrifice to Apollo in the past?
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burnt fat thighbones of bulls/goats
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Three Alternative names for the Greeks that homer uses
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Danaans, Achaeans, Argives
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What did Chryses pray for Apollo to do after being rejected by Agamemnon What did Apollo do? For how long?
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Take revenge on the Greeks Rained arrows on a Greek camp for 10 days (maybe plauge?)
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Who is Hera to Zeus and which side of the war did she favor?
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His sister Greeks
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Who is Calchas and what makes him special
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He has prophetic powers Son of Thestor
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What does the Greek army have to do to stop Apollo’s rain of arrows (plauge?)
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Give Chryses his daughter back.
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Agamemnon’s father
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Atreus
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Second bravest (after Achilles)
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Ajax
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First argument between Agamemnon and Achilles
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Agamemnon want’s a replacement gift to replace Cryse’s daughter. Achilles claims that there are no more towns to sack atm and they can’t just recollect and redistribute everything. He promises 3 or 4 times more for him if they sack Troy. Agamemnon says he’ll just steal his own gift from another if no one will give him one, maybe even Achilles’ Fine, screw this war! It’s just for your brother anyway. I have nothing against Troy. You always get the most spoils anyway and I work the hardest! FINE DESERT IF YOU WANT. GO HOME TO YOUR MYRMIDONS. I’LL JUST TAKE BRISEIS SO YOU’LL SEE HOW MUCH BETTER I AM THAN YOU AND NO ONE WILL TRY TO COMPETE WITH ME AGAIN I SWEAR BY THIS SCEPTRE THAT WHEN EVERY LAST GREEK MISSES ME I WONT COME BACK AND WHEN HECTOR KILLS YOU YOULL EAT YOUR HEART OUT CAUSE YOU DIDINT HONOR THE BEST GREEK OF THEM ALL
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King of Crete/prominent Greek leader
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Idomeneus
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Achille’s home
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Phthia
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Agamemnon’s brother. Why he special?
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Menelaus This whole war against Troy is to recover his wife (Helen)
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Who does Achilles rule over?
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Myrmidons
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Achilles’ prize
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Briseis
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Who appears to Achillies to give him advice while he debates whether to kill Agamemnon or calm himself after the first fight Can anyone else see him/her? Who sent her? What does she say?
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Athena Nope Hera Don’t kill him, Hera loves you both. You’ll get 3 times as many gifts as him because of his arrogance. Tell him off instead
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What side does Athena take? Athena’s father
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Greeks Zeus
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son of Priam, foremost warrior among the Trojans
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Hector
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Achilles’ parents
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Thetis (goddess) Peleus
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What does Nestor advice the two to do (after Athena appears and leaves)?
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Agamemnon = Don’t take Achelles’ prize Achilles = don’t get into it with a king. You may be a demigod but you arent a king, he has more power
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Achilles’ closest friend
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Patroclus
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Who Captained the ship to give Chryses’ daughter to Apollo
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Odysseus
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What does Achilles complain of when he prays to his mother after this prize is taken from him?
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Zues was supposed to give him honor because he will not live long (human) but he hasn’t
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Brother of Zeus, king of the sea
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Poseidon
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Husband of earth, first divine ruler
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Uranus, sky
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Believed to live at the edge of the world
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Ethiopians
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What did Achilles pray for Thetis to do to enact his revenge on Agamemnon
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Get Zeus to help the Trojans and defeat the Greeks because that would make Agamemnon look bad
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What gift was given to Apollo when Chryses’ daughter is returned?
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Bulls
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Song of praise to Apollo
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Paean
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Achelles’ male bloodline
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Zeus —> Aeacus —> Peleus
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How long until Zeus returns from olympus
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12 days yes, he nodded his head
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Does Zeus agree to Achilles’ revenge plan?
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Yes
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What Goddess overhears Achilles and Zues?
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Hera
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What does she worry about? How does Zeus react to this? What does Hephasestus tell her to do?
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She worries that Zeus has taken a liking to Thetis and that he has agreed to aid the Trojans He’s a dick Just do as you’re told and be nice to Zeus so he doesn’t freak out. Basically a family involving an abusive father
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nectar
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Drink of the god
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Hector’s mother
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Hecuba
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Another name for Zeus
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Cronion (son of Cronus)
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God of war strategy (and many other things)
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Athena
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Who seduced and Kidnapped Helen?
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Hector’s brother Paris
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Does Hector like Paris?
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NOPE
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What city created the dress Hecuba sacrifices to Athena?
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Sidon
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Did Athena accept Hecuba’s prayer to help Troy win?
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Nope
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Does Helen dislike Paris?
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YES
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Hector and Andromache’s Son And the name meaning
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Scamandrius (After the Trojan river Scamander)
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Who is hector’s wife?
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Andromache
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Virgin goddess of the hunt, dispenses nautral/painless death on women
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Artemis
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The citadel of Troy
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Pergamum
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trading bronze armor for gold
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Seven unfired tripods
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Three-footed kettels, rare/highly valued
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Agamemnon’s son
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Orestes
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Portion of meal is often reserved for the gods
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Lightning on the right
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What plan does Agamemnon devise to try and turn the tide of the war back to favor the Trojans?
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Get Achilles back by offering many things plus his original gilf
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Does Achilles accept Agamemnon’s attempt to win him back?
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Nope
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Horseman that tutored Achilles
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Phoenix
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Avenging spirits, focused on kin against kin crimes
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Furies
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Wife of Hates (underworld Zeus)
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Persephone
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Folly
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Destruction, a terrible plague that can be wished upon someone
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The underworld
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Erebus
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Story of Meleager
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How does Patroclus die?
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Brother of death
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Sleep
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What does Zeus shed as he watched Patroclus
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Drops of blood on earth as rain
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Also god of healing
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Apollo
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From where does Zeus watch the fight
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Idaean
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Who kills Sarpedon
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Patroclus
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Who is Zeus’ favorite?
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Sarpedon
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Where is Sarpedon baried?
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Lycia
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How far did Achilles tell Patroclus to chase the Trojans
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Just chase them from the ships, not all the way back to troy
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Who does Apollo disguise himself as to convince Hector to go back into battle and after Patroclus
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Asius, Hector’s uncle (mothers side)
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Diving jokes
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Who kills Patroclus?
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Apollo knocks off his armor Euphorbus stabbed him once Hector finished him off
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Agamemnon’s original gift
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Chryseis
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Who was sent to tell Achilles that Patroclus is dead?
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Antilochus
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Who gets Petroclus’ armor and who gets the body?
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Armor = Hector Body = Greeks
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Why did Antilochus stay with Achilles after giving him the new That Patroclus was dead?
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He feared Achilles would commit suicide
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Why does Achilles blame himself for Patroclus’ death?
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In his rage against Agamemnon he told Thetis to get Zeus to make sure the Greeks lost
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What is the only way that Achilles will be able to keep living ? (considering Patroclus’ death) Why does Thetis not like this?
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Kill Hector with his own spear. Hector’s death means Achilles’ death
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What significant thing does Achilles decide to do when deciding to avenge Patroclus
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He will swallow his pride and anger against Agamemnon
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When can Achilles go back to war to reap revenge?
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When Thetis comes back with new (?) armor Armor from Lord Hephaestus
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Who defended Patroclus’ body from Hector?
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The Ajaxes
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Goddess if rainbows and messagers of the gods in the Iliad Who sent her to Achilles What is her message
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Iris Hera Stop lieing around grieving and go save Patroclus’ body
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Tasselled aegis
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Tasseled garment/piece of armor that induced manic when shaken at enemy. Usually kept by Hera but belongs to Zeus, given to Achilles
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How did Achilles reconcile Hera wanting him to go back into battle and Thetis wanting him to stay?
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He went to the trenches near the battle and shounted at the Trojans (voice amplified by Athena) 3 times which scared them away so the Greeks could get Patroclus’ body away
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Grey-eyed-one
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Athena
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What is Polydamas’ plan (the future/past seeing prophet) now that Achilles may be back in the war
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Retreat back to Troy and set us a defensive power on the walls of the city
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Does Hector agree with/accept Polydama’s plan? What is his alternative plan? Who had the good plan and who had the bad?
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Nope and Nope In the morning go out and continue the regular battle. If Achilles is back he’ll have me to wory about. Bad = Hector Good = Polydama
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Who dulled the Trojan’s wits?
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Athena
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Patroclus’ father
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Menoetius
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What must Achilles bring back before he can die?
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The armor Hector’s head Cut throats of 12 Trojan princes before his pyer
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Does Achilles expect to die through his quest for revenge?
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yes
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How many cauldrons for Hephaestus’ latest project?
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20
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Why does Hephaestus revere Thetis?
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She took him in after his mother threw him out in an effort to hide his weakness of mind
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Who makes Achilles’ new armor?
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Hephaestus
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Did Thetis voluntarily have Achilles with Peleus?
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NOPE
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Fabled musician
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Linos
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Achilles finally accepts Agamemdons offer
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How does Apollo trick Achilles after he rejoins the war?
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Achilles is chasing some Trojan and Apollo spirits him away and takes his place (in disguise) and leads Achilles astray away from the walls of Troy allowing the Trojans to make it into Troy
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All Trojans hid behind the walls of Troy except….
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Hector
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The Dog Star, brightest in constellation Canis Major. Rises in late summer
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Sirius
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How does Hector’s parents react to him staying outside of Troy to battle with Achilles?
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They hate it. The plea for him to come in but he does not.
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Why won’t Hector go into Troy?
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He is ashamed because he was advised to just run when Achilles came back but he didn’t and he lost half his army. He can’t face the citizens of Troy
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What does Hector consider doing instead of fighting? Why does he reject this idea?
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He could try to talk it out and just surrender and give Achilles what he wants, but he couldn’t go out unarmed. Achilles would cut him down before he could even start.
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Does hector fight bravely?
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Nope he gets scared and runs
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Zeus, Lord of Lightning, Dark Cloud
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Achilles wouldn’t let his soldier shoot Hector
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What did Zeus do to sway the battle between Achilles and Hector?
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He stopped Apollo from helping Hector
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Who did Athena disguise herself as to persuade Hector to stop running and fight Achilles?
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His brother Deiphobus
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Where did Achilles stab Hector with his spear?
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Where collarbone meets neck
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What do the Greeks do to Hectors body?
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Stab it, a lot
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What did Achilles do to Hectors body?
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Cut heel tendons, tied them to chariot with leather thongs, dragged him on the journey
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What did Achilles do to Hector’s body when he couldn’t sleep? How many times?
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Dragged it around Parteclus’ tomb 3 times
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How did Hectors body no become mutilated by being dragged?
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Apollo
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Grey eyed one
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Athena
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Which gods are not okay with saving Hectors body?
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Hera Poseidon, Athena
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Under what circumstance did Paris have to choose which goddess to give the apple
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He had to pick which one is the most beautiful (He picked Aphrodite because she bribed him with Helen)
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Silverbow
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Apollo
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silver footed goddess
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Thetis
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Define suppliant
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Protector people under the protection of the gods, especially Zeus
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Spining thread of a person’s life
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Who does Priam bring to go get Hector’s body?
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An old man for carrying the body back.
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What becomes the solution for getting Hectors body back?
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Zeus decides Priam will go to Achilles and bribe him until he lets Patroclus go.
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Why can Priam pass the Greek gate?
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Hermes puts them to sleep
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Who leads Priam to Achilles
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Hermes
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What are Apollos’ magical belongings What did he do in getting Hector’s body back?
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Sandles for traveling and a wand to make people sleep/wake Tell the Trojans to make an offering to Achilles
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How did Priam manage to connect with Achilles?
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He related himself to Achilles’ dad, but with no mores sons. He has also kissed the hand of the killer of all his sons
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Achilles asks Priam how long he wants for the funneral, why? And how long?
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Achilles is going to hold back his army! 11 days (12th day they fight)
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Order of lamenting
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Andromache, Hecuba, Helen